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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 

BULLETIN No. 13. 






FOODS 



AND 



FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



INVESTIGATIONS MAUI' BY AUTHOKITY OP 

THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE, 

UNDER DIREC1 ION OF 

T II E C II EM I ST. 




PART FOURTH 

LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 

BY 

II. W. \\ 




W A S II I \ CTO 
<;<»\ E8NMEN1 PRINTING OFP1 C K. 

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 

BULLETIN No. 13. 



FOODS 



AND 



FOOD ADULTERANTS 



INVESTIGATIONS MADE BY A.UTHORITY OF 

THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE, 

UNDER DIRECTION OF 

III I CHEM] S i 



PART FOURTH: 

LARD AND LARD AIM LTERATIONS, 

II. w . WILE1 . 



W A s 1 1 I N liTOX-. 
OOVEB N M EH C PRINTING OP] [< r. 

I - [ 



17319— pt. 4 1 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/fdadulterOOusde 



[Bulletin Xo. 131 

PART 4— LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Division of Chemistry, 
Washington, />. 6\, February 7, 1889. 

Sir: With many interruptions, due to the experiments in the manu- 
facture of sugar, carried on under the super vision of this division, I have 
completed our studies on lard and lard adulterations, and now have 4 the 
honor to lay before you the results obtained for your inspection and 
approval. 

f have endeavored to slow the character of true lard, how it is made, 
and how it maybe distinguished from its imitations. In the same man 
ner the substances used in adulterating lard — viz, stearines and cotton 
oil — have been studied anil their properties described. Also the charac- 
teristics of the mixed lards have been pointed out, and the best methods 
of analytical research illustrated. 

Abstracts of similar studies by others have been given, and it is be- 
lieved thai the present state of our knowledge of lard and its com- 
pounds is fully set forth. 

Some delay in submitting the manuscript to the Public Printer has 
been experienced on account of failure to arrange for printing the Illus- 
trations. To facilitate this matter, it has been decided to omit nearly all 

illustrations of methods Of making and refining lard and cotton oil, and 
print only a few photo -micrographs showing the crystalline appearance 
of pure lard and stearines and mixtures thereof. 
Respectfully, 

11. W. WILEY, 

Chemist. 

Hi. ii. Nm:m\\ .1. COLMAN, 

Commissiom r <>f Agriculture. 

i 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



(1) LARD. 



(a) Lard is a term applied to the fat of the slaughtered hog, sepa- 
rated from the other tissues of the animal by the aid of heat. 

in the crude state it is composed chiefly of the glycerides of the fatty 
acids, oleic and stearic or palmitic, with small portions of the connect- 
ive tissues, animal gelatine, and other organic matters. 

(b) Kinds of lard, — According to the parts of the fat used and the 
methods of rendering it lard is divided into several classes. According 
to methods of rendering lard is classified as kettle and steam. Prom 
material used the following classification may be made: 

(c) Neutral lard. — Neutral lard is composed of the fats derived from 
the leaf of the slaughtered animal, taken in a perfectly fresh state. The 
Leaf is cither chilled in a cold atmosphere or treated with cold water to 
remove the animal heat. It is then reduced to a pulp in a grinder and 

d at once to the rendering kettle. The fat is rendered at a tem- 
perature 1<>:P to 120° p. (40<M>0° C). Only apart of the lard issep- 
a rated at this temperature and the rest i-> sent toother rendering tanks 
to he made into another kind of product The laid obtained as above 
is washed in a melt". 1 state with water containing a trace of sodium 

carbonate, sodium chloride, or a dilute acid. The lard thus formed is 
almost neutral, containing not to exceed .25 per cent, free acid ; but it 
maj contain a considerable quantity of water and some salt This neu- 
tral lard is used almost exclusively for making hutterine (olcomarg.i- 

1 Mir . 

/ /. if lard.— The residue unrendered in the above process is sub- 
jected to steam heat under pressure and the fit thus obtained is called 
lc if lard. Formerly this was the only kind of lard recognized in the 
< Ihicago Board of Trade, and was then made of the whole leaf. 

[e) Choi ' lard} Choice lard, — The quantity of lard 

required for butterine does not include all of the leaf produced. The 

remaining portions of the leaf, i with the fat CUt from the hacks. 

are rendered in steam-jacketed open kettles and produce a choice va- 
riety of lard known as " kettle-rendered." The hide is removed from 



406 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

the back fat before rendering and both leaf and back fat arc passed 

through a pulping machine before they enter the kettle. Choice lard 
is thus defined by the regulations of the Chicago Board of Trade: 

Choice lard.— Choice lard to be made from Leaf and trimmings only, either steam 
or kettle rendered,- the manner of rendering to be branded on each tierce. 

(/) Prime steam lard. — The prime steam lard of commerce is made 
as follows : The whole head of the hog, after the removal of the jowl, 
is used for rendering. The heads are placed in the bottom of the ren- 
dering tank. The fat is pulled off of the small intestines and also 
placed iu the tank. Any fat that may be attached to the heart of the 
animal is also used. In houses where kettle-rendered lard is not made 
the back fat and trimmings are also used. Wheu there is no demand 
for leaf lard the leaf is also put into the rendering tank with the other 
portions of the body mentioned. It is thus seeu that prime steam lard 
may be taken to represent the fat of the whole animal, or only portions 
thereof. The quantity of fat afforded by each animal varies with the 
market to which the meat is to be sent. A hog trimmed for the do 
mestic market will give an average of about 40 pounds, while from 
one destined for the English market only about 20 pounds of lard will 
be made. Prime steam lard is thus defined by the Chicago Board of 
Trade : 

Prime steam lard. — Standard prime Steam lard shall be solely the product of the 
trimmings and other la t parts of hogs, rendered in tanks by the direct application of 
steam, and without subsequent change in grain or character by the use of agitators 

or Other machinery, except as BUCh change may unavoidably come from transporta- 
tion. It shall have proper color, flavor, and soundness for keeping, and no material 

w hi eh has been sailed shall be included. The name and local ion of t he leiiderer and 
the grade <W the lard shall be plainly branded on each package at the time of pack- 
ing. 

This l.ird is passed solely on inspection : the inspector having no au- 
thority to supervise rendering establishments in order to secure a proper 
control of the kettles. According to the printed regulations, any pari 
of the hog containing fat can he legally used. 

Since niuch uncertainty exists in regard to the disposition which is 
made of the guts of the hog I have had the subject carefully investi- 
gated. Following are the results of the study: 

(g)OuU. — The definition of the term as used i>\ hog packers is: Ev- 
erything inside of a hog except the lungs and hearts, or, in other words, 
I he abdominal viscera Complete. The material is handled as follows: 

When the hog is split open the \ iseera are separated by cutting out 

the portiOO of flesh snrronnding the anus and taking a strip containing 

tin' external urino generative organs. The whole viscera are thrown 
on a table and divided as follows : The heart is thrown to one side and 

the fatty portion trimmed oil' for lard. The rest goes Into the offal tank 

Or sausage. The lungs and liver go into the offal laid; (or sausage). 



LARD AND LAUD ADULTERATIONS. 407 

The rectum and large intestines are pulled from the intestinal fat and 
peritoneum and, along with the adhering flesh and genitourinary organs, 
sent to the trimmer. All flesh and the above-mentioned organs are 
trimmed off and the intestine proper is used for sausage easings. The 
trimmings, including the genito uriuary orgaus, are washed and dumped 
into the rendering tank. The small intestine is also pulled from the fatty 
membrane surrounding it and saved for sausage casings. The remain- 
ing material, consisting of the peritoneum, diaphragm, stomach, and 
adhering membranes, together with the intestinal fat, constitute the 
"guts" which are seen undergoing the process of washing, which is 
usually conducted in three or four different tanks. As the "guts" pass 
into the first tank the stomach and peritoneum are split open and also 
any portion of the intestines which sometimes adhere to the peritoneum. 
After receiving a rough wash they are passed from tank to tank, when, 
after the third or fourth wash, they are ready for the rendering tank. 
The omentum fat is cut from the kidneys and tin 1 kidneys with a little 
adhering fat go into the rendering tank. Spleen and pancreas go into 
the rendering tanks, as do also the trachea, vocal chords, and oesopha- 
gus. 

To sum up, it is sate to say that everything goes into the rendering 
tank, with the following exceptions: 

(1) The intestines proper, which are saved for sausage-casings. 

(2) The liver and lungs. 

That part of the heart free from fat. 

I have been told that in killing small hogs, and also when there is 
small demand for sausage-casings, it is frequently the practice to split 
the intestines, so as to save expense of pulling from the fat, and alter 
washing, fat and all go into the tank. Of course it will often happen 
that the intestines break oil' and portions adhere to the enveloping tis- 
sue, and consequently gel into the tank after washing. 

II is a commercial fact that saU8age Casings are worih ni.ee than the 

small amount of adhering fat, and consequently packers will save them. 

Small hogs p mall casings difficult to pull, and it is reasonable 

to believe that they will be handled in the simpler manner. They break 

so easily that they are hardly worth saving separately, it is stated by 
lard manufacturers thai the grease made from the parts of the intes- 
tines mentioned above is used for the manufacture of lard oil and Boap, 

and does not enter into the lard of commerce. 

(It) Butch rs lard. — The small quantities of lard made i»\ butchers are 
usually '-kettle rendered," after the manner practiced by small farmers 
in making lanl for home consumption. ' fteii the scraps arc saved up 
for a considerable length of time l>\ the butchers before rendering, and 
that Is likely to Increase the free acid present. This l.u.i Is also fre 
quently dark colored, and contains a considerable quantity of glue. in 
New York this lard is known as « New fort Oltv Laid." 



408 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTEEAKTS 



In this figure is represented the type of apparatus used for rendering 
lard, etc., under pressure. The rendering vessel is made of boiler iron 
or steel, and varies in size according to the magnitude of the establish- 







ment A very common size is 10 to 12 \'w\ in length and 3 to 5 feet in 
diameter. The beads, scraps, and other materials arc pul in at M. 
When i he tank is I nil M is closed. Si ram is admitted tb rough the pipe 
thus marked, ami condensed water drawn oil' through the water-pipe. 
Through the cocks at 1) the depth of lard in the tank can bedetermined 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 409 

and the lard drawn off. When the process is finished and the lard 
drawn off the bottom G is opened and the il tankage" withdrawn and 
dried for fertilizing purposes. 

(B) Other Hog-Fat Products. 

There are many other hog-fat products not used in the manufacture 
of lard or compound lard, a description of which, however, may prove 
nseful here. 

(a) White grease. — This grease is made chiefly from hogs which die in 
transit, by being smothered or frozen. Formerly it was also made from 
animals dead of disease; but this product has of late been diminished 
on account of certain State laws requiring the carcasses of hogs which 
have died of cholera to be buried. This grease is made from the whole 
animal with the exception of the intestines. The latter are rendered 
separately and make "brown grease". The rendering is done in closed 
tanks at a high pressure. The residue is used in the manufacture of 
fertilizer. \Yhite and brown grease are used chiefly in the manufacture 
of low-grade lard oils and soap. 

(h) Yellow grease. — Yellow grease is made by packers. All the refuse 
materials of the packing-houses go into the yellow-grease tank, together 
with any hogs which may die on the packers' hands. Yellow grease is 
intermediate in value between white and brown. It is used for the 
same purposes. 

(c) Pigs'-foot grease.— This grease is obtained chielly from the glue 
factories, and is used for making lard oils and soap. 

(2) STEARIN! 

The stearines are the more solid portions of the animal fats remain- 
ing after the more fluid portions have been removed by pressure. The 
stearines \\>i'(\ in the manufacture of compound lard are lard Mcaiine, 
derived from lard, and oleo searine, derived from a certain quality of 
beef tallow. Cotton-oil Me;irine is U8ed chielly in the manufacture Of 
battel inc. 

A..— Lard Si sarins 

The lard stearine used in compound lard is made as follows: 

The prime steam lard, it properly crystallized and of the right tern 
perature (from r> to 55 P., winter; 55 to amer), is sent at 

• nice to the proses, [f Qol properly grained, it is melted and kept in 

;i crystallizing room at o<> J to 60 P., until the proper grain is formed. 
The lard is then wrapped in cakes with cloth, eaeh cake containing 10 
to I'd pounds. The cakes are then placed in a large press, with suitable 
septa to facilitate the egress of the oil. These presses are sometimes i<> 
to 60 feel in length, and when fust filled 12 to is feel high. The press 
are is applied very gradually at Aral bj mi ana of a lever working b c ip 
stan, about which the chain i> wrapped, attached to the upper moi able 

pan of the p; 



iio 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



The oil expressed, prime or extra lard oil, is used for illuminating ami 
lubricating purposes. The resulting stearine is used for Making com- 
pound lard and is worth more than the lard. It has about .5 per cent. 
tree fatty acid (less than the lard oil), and crystallizes in long needles, 
making the texture tough. 

B.—Oleo -Stearine. 

This product is made chiefly from the caul fat of beeves. * This fat is 
rendered in open kettles at a low temperature. The resulting tallow- 
is placed in cars in a granulating room, where it is allowed to remain 
foi thirty six to forty-eight hours at a temperature 80° to 90° Fah. 
The contents of the cars are then mixed and placed on a revolving ta- 
ble, where they are made into cakes. These are wrapped with strong 
cotton cloth and placed in a strong press, where a gradual pressure 
at 00° P., becoming very strong at the end, is applied for one or two 
hours. The expressed oil, known as oleo-oil, is used in the manu- 
facture of butterine. The stearine is removed from the press as white 
hard cakes, and is used for adulterating lard. The oil is sometimes 
filtered with a small percentage of fuller's earth, to improve its color 
and brightness. 

C. — Mutton Tallow. 

A line article of mutton tallow is also sometimes used in lard, but the 
objection to the flavor is sufficient to limit its use to a small amount. 

D.— 13 kef Fat. 
The following general remarks on beef fat will be found instructive: 
Before the day of the oleomargarine industry all fat rendered from the 
tissues of cattle was known commercially as tallow. Since then differ- 
entiation has taken place and the term tallow is do longer Sufficient to 
designate the several products obtained from the rendered fat of the 

beef. Wo have liist " butler stock, ■' which is rendered from the eanl fat 

at a low temperature and from which is manufactured by means of 

pressure — 

(1) Oleo-oil. 

(li) Oleo stearine (beet* stearine). 

The kidney fat as a rule is left with the carcass and constitutes what 
is known as suet. Marrow stock, as its name implies, is rendered mar- 
row fat, and when properly prepared is almost equal to butter stock in 

quality. Tallow is made from the t ri minings and portions Of the viscera. 

its color varies from white to yellow according to the portions of the 

animal which have been used and the care with which they have been 

prepared for rendering and the temperature at which rendered. When 

freshly and carefully rendered tallow should show less than L5 percent. 
Of free fatty acid. The tallow on the market will show anywhere from 

2 to in percent. Its flavor varies, never being good enough for lard. 

Tallow grease corresponds to the yellow grease of the hog packer. It 

is of a dark color ami often contains as much as 50 per cent, of free acid. 

Jt is made into low-grade soaps. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIO 



411 



(3) COTTON OIL. 

[a) The cotton seed from various sources is put through ;» screen to 
take out the bolls and coarse material. The seed is then put through 
a gin to remove as far as possible any remaining lint, of which about 20 
pounds per ton of seed are obtained. 

The clean seed is next sent to a huller composed of revolving cylin- 
ders covered with knives, which cut up both seed and hull. The chips 
are then conveyed to a screen placed on a vibrating frame, through 
which the kernels fall. The hulls are carried by an endless belt to the 
furnaces, where they are burned. The kernels of the seed are conveyed 
to crusher rolls, where they are ground to a tine meal. The meal is then 
sent to a heater, where it remains from twenty to forty minutes. These 
heaters have a temperature of 210° to 215° F. The hot meal is formed 
into cakes by machinery; these are wrapped in cloth and placed in the 
press. About 1G pounds of meal are put in each cake. The cakes are 
placed in a hydraulic press, where a pressure of from 3,000 to 1,000 
pounds per square inch is applied. The press is also kept warm. The 
expressed cakes contain only about 10 per cent, of oil. The cake is 
sold as caUle food or for fertilizing purposes. The crude oil as thus 
expressed contains about 1.5 per cent, of free acid. The chief cotton- 
seed presses of the country are located at the following points: 

Cotton-teed oil milling points. 



Arkansas : 


Ill 


inois : 


Xort h Carolina : 


Little Book. 




Cairo. 


Charlotte. 


Argenta. 


Louisiana : 


Raleigh. 


Fori Smith. 




N. w ( Orleans. 


Tennessee : 


Texarkana. 




Shreveport. 


Memphis. 


Brinkley. 




Baton Rouge. 


Jackson. 


Helena. 




Monroe. 


Nashville. 


Alabama : 


Mi 


issouri : 


Dyersl 


Selma. 




Saint Louis. 


1 1 \ a s J 


Ifobile. 


M 


iasiesippi : 


Brenham. 


Montgomery. 




Ciarkadale, 


l>allas. 


Bnfaola. 




Colnmbue. 


Galveston. 


Hnntsville. 




Canton. 


Houston. 


jia : 




< Irenada. 


-fine. 


Atlanta. 




enville. 


W.l' 


Angnsta. 




Meridian. 




Albany , 




\at. 




* olnmbus. 




Vioksbnrg. 




Mai on. 




W'.st Point. 




Borne. 









The oil ischieflj pressed in winter, sinoe it is difficult to keep the seed 
tor summer work. Some mills are, however, operated during the sum 
mer. The erode oil is shipped in tanks holding from 30,000 to 15,000 
poundseaoh. When the oil Is Bhipped North in w inter it usually becomes 

solid i tied, in order to gel it out <»t' the tanks tln-v are placed on sw itches 
and a jet of steam is introduced i n t < > the tank and the oil gradually 



412 POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

melted out. Another method consists in covering the tank with wood, 
forming a chamber into which exhausted steam is introduced. Gutters 

are provided along the railroad tracks into which the oil Hows and 
is conducted into the receiving tanks. From the receiving tanks it is 
pumped into large receivers called scale tanks, where the crude oil is 
weighed. 

(b) Refining process. — After weighing, the oil is pumped into refining 
kettles. These are of various sizes, the largest ones being 20 to 25 feet 
deep aud 15 feet in diameter. These tanks are furnished with steam- 
coils for the purpose of heating the oil and with appropriate machinery 
for keeping it in motion. A solution of caustic soda is used for refin- 
ing. This solution is made from 10° to 2S° Beaume in strength, and 
varying quantities are used according to the nature of the oil operated 
upon. After the addition of the caustic soda the mixture is agitated 
for forty-five minutes and kept at a temperature of 100° to 110° F. 
The contents of the tank are then allowed to stand six to thirty six- 
hours, when the solid matters, soap and substances precipitated by the 
caustic alkali gather at the bottom. This mixture is called "foots," 
and is used for making soap. The yellow oil resulting by this proc- 
ess is further purified by being heated aud allowed to settle again or 
by filtration and is called summer yellow oil. Winter yellow oil is 
made from the above material by chilling it until it partially crystal- 
lizes and separating the stearine formed, about 25 per cent., in presses 
similar to those used for lard. This cotton-oil stearine is used for 
making butterine and soap. 

(c) White Oil — The yellow oil obtained as above is treated with from 
2 to 3 per cent, of fullers earth in a tank furnished with apparatus for 
keeping the mixture in motion. When the fuller's earth has been thus 
thoroughly mixed with the oil, the whole is sent to the filter press. 
The fuller's earth has the property of absorbing or holding back the 
yellow coloring matter, so that the oil which issues from the press is 
almost white. This white oil is the one which is chiefly used for mak- 
ing compound lard. 

Cotton oil is obtained from the seeds of 0088t/pium herbaceum. The 

percentage of oil varies in the seed from i<> to 30. 

In L882 it was estimated that the oil industry was represented by the 

following data:* 

410,000 ions of seed, yielding ::."> gallon* of orude oil to the ton, are 

1 1,350,000 gallons, worth 30 cents per gallon 

Same amount of seed, yielding 22 pounds cotton lmt to t lie i id, i 1 9,020,000 

pounds cotton, \\<m i h 8 nuts per ponnd 721,000 

And yielding also 75^ pounds of oil-cake to the ton (2,240 pounds) is 13' 

ton- of cake at $20 per ton 2,74 

7,77'J, 140 
Deduct the sum paid for tho socd, say 4,100,000 

And there remains for value gained in manipulatiou of 3,672,140 

•Brant. Vegetable and Animal Oils. Phil. II. C. Baird & Co! 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 413 

From September 1, 1883, to September 1, 1886, there were exported from New York 
B8,871 barrels, and from New Orleans 186,720 "barrels, making a total of 275,591 bar- 

rom t iio two ports. These figures show conclusively that American cotton-seed 
oil is growing rapidly in favor in foreign countries. 

When well stored and properly ventilated, cotton seed keeps sweet for twelve 
months. If allowed to become damp, or stored too long in bulk, it grows heated, and 
is liable to spontaneous combustion. 

Manufacture of cottonseed oil. — The seed when landed at the mill is first examined 
If too damp or wet it is dried by spreading it over a floor with free access of air. ex- 
S> it on frames to the sunlight in warm weather, or by kiln-drying. Drying is 
the exception rather than the rule in the United States. Cotton ginning is so care- 
fully done that the seeds have little or no opportunity to become wet. Besides this, 
ed is generally held at the gins for some time before it is sold to the oil manu- 
facturer. 

The first process in preparing the dry seed for the mill is to free it from dust. This 
ted by diaking it in a screen or in drums lined with a fine metallic net and 
containing a strong magnet to which any iron nails will adhere, whicb are frequently 
d. From the drums the seeds drop into a gutter leading to a machine which 
removes the lint left by the gin. This is done by a gin constructed for the purpose, 
with saws closer together than the ordinary cotton-gin. An average of twenty-two 
pounds of short lint is taken from a ton of the seed. This product, called " lit 
is nsed in the manufacture of cotton batting. The clean seeds are then transferred 
to the sheller, which consists of a revolving cylinder containing twenty-four cylin- 
drical knives and lour back knives. The sheller revolves at great speed, and as the 
seed i> forced between the knives the pericarp or hull is broken and forced from the 
kernel. The mixed shells and kernels are separated in a winnowing machine by a 
strong blast of air. This removal of the husk makes a vast difference in the meal 
cake, a dessicated or decorticated cake being five times more nutritious and whole- 
some than an undecorticated cake. 

Being thus cleaned, Bhelled, and separated, the kermis are carried by a system of 
(levators to the upper story and then pass down into the crusher-rolls to be ground 

to dour. 

Cold pressure produces a very good salad oil. and this is the method generally pur- 
eed in Marseilles and other European cities for the first pressure, alter which tho 
residue is subjected to a second warm pressure. In this country, however, wai m press- 
ure is generally preferred. The meal is heated in a meal heater for fifteen to twenty 
minutes to 204.4° to 215.3 F. 

'11 1 cheated meal is placed in woolen bags, each holding suffioienl seed for a cake. The 
are then placed between horse- hair mats backed with leather having a tin led suf- 
fice inside to facilitate the < scape of the oil under the hydraulic pressure amounting 

1 ions. With the most improved presses the hair mats are, however, done aw ay 

with. The hags remain in the press seventeen minutes, the solid " oil-cake " of com- 
merce remaining behind. This cake forms a superior iced tor cattle, horses, sheep, 

and especially swine, ami is nut lit i-> digested, and fattening. 

eed cake is of a rich golden color, quite dry, and has a sweet, nutty, oleag 

inons taste. When ground to the fineness of coin meal it is known as •'cotton seed 

meal," and in that form i- frequently used for fertilizing purpot 
The crude oil as obtained from tho press is pumped into the oil-room and either bar 

reled tor shipment or refined. 

.i qualities of the oil air know n : 

Crudi oil is thickly fluid and of a dirtj yellow to reddish color; on standing it de 
a slini\ sediment. £ quality has a pale orange color and is obtained 

by refining the crude oil. The third quality is <il »t ained bj further purification of tin- 
second ; and the fourth, which has a pale or and a pure nutty taste, bj bleach- 
ing the thud quality. 



414 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS, 

The coloring principle, termed ijossypin, is collected on a alter, carefully washed 
to remove any trace of acid, and dried slowly at a low temperature. It is then ready 
for use as a dye, and gives fast colors on both silk and wool. It is claimed that the 
quantity of coloring matter in a ton of crude oil is 15 pounds, though this pro- 
portion must vary considerably. Its properties are insolubility in acids, slight solu- 
bility in water, free solubility in alcohol or alkalies. In its dry state it is a light 
powder of a pungent odor, of a brown color, and strongly tiuctorial. 

Crude cotton-seed is thickly fluid, twenty-eight to thirty times less fluid than water, 
and has a specific gravity of 0.9283 at 03° f., 0.9806 at 59° P., and 0.9343 at 50° F. 

According to the quality of the oil, palmitin is separated between 54° and 43° F. 
The oil congeals at 28.5° to 27° F. In taste and odor it resembles linseed oil, and as 
regards other properties it is an intermediate between drying and non-drying oils. 

Refined cotton-seed oil has a specific gravity of 0.9264 at 59° F. ; it separates pnl- 
mitin already below 53.5° F., and congeals at 32° to 30° F. 

The oil consists of palmitin and olein, and to make it >tiil more adapted for the 
adulteration of olive oil, for which immense quantities are need e\ cry year, it is inten- 
tionally cooled for the separation of palmitin, which lowers the specific gravity. 

MIXING. 

The term refined lard has Ion g been used to designate a lard com 
posed chiefly of cotton oil and stearine. The largest manufacturers of 
tbiskind of laid have now abandoned this term and are using the label 
"lard compound" instead. This is but just to the consumers of this 
article who are likely to be misled by the term refined lard. The prime 
steam lard in a state of fusion, the stearine also in a liquid condition, 
and the refined cotton oil are measured in the proportions to be used and 
placed in a tank at a temperature of 120° to 100° F. In this tank the 
ingredients are thoroughly mixed by means of paddles operated by 
machinery. After mixing the compound laid passes at once to artifi- 
cial coolers where it is chilled as soon as possible. It is thence run di- 
rectly into small tin cans or Large packages and prepared for market. 

(■1) PROPERTIES OF PURE LARD. 
A.— Physical Proper i 

(a) Specific gravity, — The specific gravity of a pun' lard varies rap- 
idly with the temperature. It is not convenient to take the specific 

ilv of ;i Lard at a lower teinpcr.it lire than 35 ' or 40 >,• inasmuch as 
below that temperature solidification is apt to begin. The specific 
gravity, therefore, is usually taken at 35° or 40 > or at the temperature 
Of boiling water, viz, L00°. At 40° the specific gravity of pure lard is 
about .890, and at LOO ' about .Sill), referred to water at I . 

The specific gravity of pure laid i\ovs not differ greatly bom that of 

many of the substances used in adulterating it, but it id distinctly lower 

than that of cotton oil, and is of great distinctive value in analysis. 

(b) Melting point — The melting point of a pure lard is a physical 



AM d< Centigltde unless otherwise stated. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. ' 415 

characteristic of great value. The melting point of the fat of the swine 
varies with the part of the body from which it is taken. The fat from 
the foot of the swine appears to have the least melting point, viz, 35.1°. 
The intestinal fat seems to have the highest, viz, 41°. In fat derived 
from the head of the animal the melting point is found to be 33.5°, 
while the kidney fat of the same animal shows a melting point of 42 
In steam lards, representing the lards passed by the Chicago Board of 
Trade, the melting point for ten samples was found to vary between 
29.S° and 43.9°. In general it may be said that the melting point of 
steam lards is about 37° which is the mean of ten samples examined. 
In pun. 1 lards derived from other localities the melting point was also 
found to vary. A sample of lard from Deerfoofe Farm, Southborougb, 
.Mass., was found to have a melting point of 44.9°, while a pure laid 
from Sperry & Barnes, Xew LTaveu, Conn., melted at 39°. The mean 
for eighteen samples was 40.7°. While the melting point can not be 
taken as a certain indication of the purity of a lard, nevertheless a wide 
variation from 40° in the melting point of a lard should lead at least to 
a suspicion of its genuineness, or that it was made from sonic special 
part of the animal. Perhaps one reason why the melting point has not 
been more highly regarded by analysts is because of the unsatisfactory 
method of determining it; but when it is ascertained by the method 
used in these investigations it becomes a characteristic of great value. 
(c) Color reaction. — The coloration produced on pure lard 1>\ cer- 
tain reagents serves as a valuable diagnostic sign in the analysis of 
lard and its adulterations. Various reagents have been employed for 
the production of characteristic colors in fats, but of these only two are 
of essential importance. They are sulphuric and nitric acids. Pure 
lard, when mixed with sulphuric and nitric acids of the proper density, 
as indicated hereafter, give only a slight color which varies from light 
pink to faint brown. The variation produced in the colors by pure 
l;ir. Is is doubtless due to the presence in various (plant it ies of certain 
tissues of the animal other than fat. For instance, a variation in the 

amount of gelatinous substance mechanically entangled with the lard 
oi of the tissues composing the cells in which the laid was originally 
contained would be entirely sufficient to account for the Blight differ- 
ences in color produced by lard 8 of known purity. It might, therefore, 

be difficult to distinguish accurately between a pure lard containing 
considerable amount of other tissues from the animal and one which 

contained a small amount of adulteration. The C -loration produced, 
therefore, b\ the acids named should not be relied UDOH wholly in 
tinguisliing pure and adulterated lards; but the Character of such 

coloration should be carefully noted in the analyst's book In the steam 
lards examined some of the remarks describing the coloration produced 
are as follows : 

•' Trace of color," "faint pink," lt bright pink," •• li -lit red.'" u \ el low 

>fch," etc. For pure lards of miscellaneous origin some of the d esc rip- 



416 " FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

t ions are as follows : "Brownish pink,"' "trace of yellow." "'marked 
r<-d brown," "no color,'' "slight coloration, etc. 

(J) Refractive Index. — The deviation produced in the direction of a 
ray of light in passing through a film of melted fat is also a valuable 
physical characteristic. This deviation is usually measured as the quo- 
tient r-Z the sine of the angle of incidence divided by the sine of the angle 
of refraction and is known as the refractive index. The refractive iudex 
of pure water, at 25° on the instrument used in these investigations was 
1 .3300. The refractive index of the samples of lard was made at as low 
a temperature as possible to preserve fluidity, viz : between 30° and 3G°. 
In the tables the temperature at which the index was taken is not given, 
but the number representing the index corrected to the uniform temper- 
ature 25°. The rate of variation in the refrativc index for each degree of 
temperature, experimentally determined, for lard oil was .0002SS. This 
number may also be taken to represeut the variation for lard. The re- 
fractive index varies inversely as the temperature. The mean number 
for a pure lard at 25° is about 1.4G20. The variation from this number 
can be seen in the analytical tables which follow. The refractive index 
of pure lard is distinctly less than that of cottou-seed oil at the same 
temperature, and is therefore a valuable characteristic for analytical 
purposes. 

(e) Rise of temperature with sulphuric acid. — More valuable for di- 
agnostic; purposes than the physical properties already considered is 
the rise of temperature which lard undergoes when mixed, under proper 
conditions, with sulphuric acid. There is such a marked difference be- 
tween the numbers representing the rise of temperature in pure lard 
and those of the adulterants usually employed in the manufacture of 
mixed lard as to give this number a high analytical value. With 
steam lards, ten samples, the extremes, as registered by the thermom- 
eter, were 38.8° and 42.1°. For pure lards of miscellaneous origin, one 
from Deerfoot Farm, Southborongh, Mass., gave a rise of temperature 

37.1 . and a pure leaf lard from Spcrry .\ Haines, New Haven, Conn., 

u rise of temperature of 16.2 . 

The value of tins characterisl ic is so great as to lead me to expect ap- 
proximately reliable quantitative results from a general determination 

of the actual amount of heat produced in an appropriate calorimeter. 

I am at present attempting to devise an instrument by which the actual 
number of calories produced by mixing definite quantities of fats and 
oils and sulphuric acid can be accurately determined. 

(/) Crystallization paint of fixity aeids. — The method described in the 
work of Dalican for determining the crystallizing points of fatty acids 

gives valuable data concerning the nature of pure lard, and also of the 
relative amount of stearic and oleic aeids present in the mixture. The 

crystallizing point was found to \ ary in the ten samples of prime steam 

lard already mentioned from 35.4 to 39.fi . In pure lards of other 
kinds the variation was found to be from 32.J ' to 12.7°. 



LARD AXD LARD ADULTERATIONS. 417 

(g) Melting point <>f fatty acids. — In connection with the crystallizing 
point of the fatty acids, the melting point is also of value. This tem- 
perature has been determined in the fat acids derived from steam and 
pure lards, and the numbers will be found in the analytical tables. In 
the prime steam lards these numbers vary from 41.4° to 43°. In pure 
lards of other kinds the variation was from 3G.9° to 4G.G°. 

B.— Chemical Properties. 

(a) Volatile acids. — The quantity of volatile acid, as ordinarily esti- 
mated in a pure lard, is quite minute. Unless some suspicion of adul- 
teration is awakened the search for such volatile or soluble acid may be 
omitted. Measured by the decinormal alkali solution required for 5 
grammes of the fat the mean quantity of volatile acid in a pare lard may 
vary from .2 to A of a cubic centimeter. The determination, therefore, 
of the volatile acid in the examination of lards has none of that high 
diagnostic value which attaches to it in the examination of butters. 

(b) Fixed acids. — The quantity of fixed acids (non-volatile and insol- 
uble in water) iu lard varies from 03 to 95 per cent. 

(c) Free acids. — The quantity of free acids in lard rarely exceeds .5 
per cent. 

Twelve determinations of free acids in lards of known purity gave the 
following numbers expressed as per cent. : 

.54 .92 .55 .I."") .7.") .35 .65 .00 .15 1.0 .40 .50 

(d) Saponification equivalent — The amount of caustic alkali necessary 
to saponify the fatty acids of the common glycerides is known as its 
saponification equivalent or number. The operation is usually known 
as Koeitstoil'er's process. The number of parts of a glyceride saponi- 
fied by one equivalent of alkali is represented by one-third of the molec- 
ular weight of the glyceride in question. The saponification equivalent, 
therefore, represents the number of grams of an oil or Fat saponified 
by one equivalent in grams of an alkali. The percentage of caustic 
potash ased for saponifying a lard is about 20 and the me. in saponifica- 
tion equivalent about 285. In the prime steam lards examined by us, 
the extreme variations were 276.14 and 290.05, and the mean 283.45. 
Iu pure lards of other kinds the extremes were 272.64 and 294.1 I, and 
the mean 280.33. 

(c) Iodine number — The quantity of iodine absorbed by an oil or fat 
affords ouc of the most valuable indications of its constitution. The 
glycerides of the olein scries have tin* property o\' absorbing the halo 

geUS. On the other hand the glycerides of the .stearic series do not 

absorb iodine. Hence in a lat oroil from which the presence of linolcin 
and its analogous bodies can be excluded the quantity of iodine absorbed 

may become ;i fairly neonate measure of the ;i mount of oleic ami prCS 

cut. The lard derived from different portions of the swine varies largely 
in the amount of olein contained therein. For instance, a sample of 
intestinal lard absorbed 57.34 per cent, of iodine ; the leaf laid from the 
i T : ; i *. » — i » t , i — 



418 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

same animal absorbed 52.55 per cent., the foot lard 77.28 per cent., the 
bead lard 85.03 per cent. In tbe prime steam lards mentioned the va- 
riation in the percentage of iodine absorbed was from 60.34 to G0.47 per 
cent., and the mean 02. 8G per cent. In pure lards of other kinds the 
mean was 62.48 per cent. Thus in lards of known purity the amount of 
iodine Absorbed will indicate tbe probable part of the animal from which 
the fat in the lard was derived. The wide variation between the iodine 
oombers of pure lard and those of the adulterants used in making com- 
pound laid serve to render this number of the greatest importance in 
analytical work. 

(/) The reaction with nitrate of silver. — Pure lards, treated with a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver, after the method of Bechi,or the fatty acids 
thereof, after the method of Milliau, give no reduction of metallic silver, 
or, at most, only a trace and no or only a. slight coloration. This fact is 
of "the utmost importance in the analysis of lard. 

(g) Microscopical appearances. — Lard, examined with the microscope, 
shows a definite crystalline structure, but does not plainly reveal the 
character of the crystals. When lard is slowly crystallized from ether, 
beautiful rhombic crystals of stearine are obtained, which are easily 
distinguished from the groups of fan shaped crystals given by beef or 
mutton fat under similar conditions. 

(//) Moisture i)t lard. — The quantity of water in pure lard varies from 
a mere trace to .7 per cent. Twelve determinations showed the follow- 
ing per cents. : 

.7 A .2 .5 .0 .5 
.2 .2 .3 .3 .3 .7 

(.',) PROPERTIES of LARD ADULTERANTS. 

COTTONSEED OIL. 

A.— Physic il Properties. 

(a) Specific gravity.— Cottonseed oil being liquid at ordinary temper- 
atures, its specific gravity call be easily taken at the temperature of 
the room. For purposes of comparison, tbe rate of variation in the 

specific gravity of the oil can be determined and its specific gra\ it\ at 

any given temperature calculated, or its specific gravity can be directly 
determined ;it 35°, W , or LOO . as may be desired, by comparison with 
water a( the same temperature. In the Bamples examined the specific 

gravities of the oils at 36 \ary from .0132 to .015 1. The mean for nine- 
teen Bamples is .91 12. These numbers show the relative weight of the 
ml, an equal volume of water at the same temperature being taken as 

unity. 




LAED AND LAUJ) ADULTERATIONS. 

Specific gravity of refined cotton oil at different temperatures. 

[Water at 19° G l. Average, oil at 15° .9218— atlOQ .8683.] 



419 



1 

Tempera- 
ture C°. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Weight 

oil. 

1 '(minis. 

57. Or 


Tempera- 
ture c°. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Weight 

cubic loot 

oil. 


10 


. 02-19 






Pound*. 

55. 86 


11 


. 9243 


57.03 


57 






12 


.92137 


57. CO 


58 






13 


.9231 




59 


.8910 




14 


. 9224 


57.51 


60 


. f 934 




15 


.9218 


57.49 


61 




55. 07 


10 


.'.•212 


57.45 


62 






17 




57.41 


63 


.8915 




18 


. 9199 




64 


.8908 




19 


.9193 








56.51 


20 


.9187 


57.28 


6G 




55. 51 


21 


.9181 




67 






22 


.9174 


57.21 


68 






23 


.9108 


57. \f 


69 






24 


.9161 




70 




55. 31 


•j:, 




57. 08 


71 






26 


. 9149 


57.01 


72 






27 


.9113 


56.00 


73 


.8851 






.9136 








55. 10 


'.'9 






::> 


.8839 






.9193 




76 




56. L9 


:u 


.9117 




77 






32 


.911(1 




- 




55.01 


33 


.9195 




79 


.8814 








5G.74 










.9092 j 




-1 




54.90 








82 










































M 












11 






B7 




54.64 


12 
























n 












i:> 






i.l 






18 












17 
























19 
























:.i 



























































420 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTEBANTS. 

(b) MtUing point. — Since cotton oil solidifies only at a temperature 
near or below the freezing point of water its melting point has not 
been determined. 

(c) Color reaction, — The color produced in cotton oil by sulphuric and 
nitric acids is a characteristic mark of the greatest value. This color 
varies from deep reddish brown to an almost black color. Some of the 
descriptions of the color produced in cotton oil, taken from the note- 
book, are as follows : "dark brown," "very brown black," "deep red 
browi: " very red," " yellow brown," etc. It must not be forgotten, 
however, that these colors can be produced by other oils, and hence 
their occurrence is not conclusive evidence of the presence of cotton oil. 

(d) Refractive index. — The refractive index of cotton oil is distinctly 
higher than that of lard. The variation in the index of refraction is in- 
versely as the temperature. The mean rate of variation for each de- 
gree is .000288. For a temperature of 25° the mean refractive index <>1 
the samples examined was 1.4674. The rate of variation in the index 
of refraction in cotton oil is sensibly the same as that for lard. 

(c) Rise of temperature with sulphuric acid. — The rise of temperature 
which cotton oil suffers when mixed with sulphuric acid is a very promi- 
nent diagnostic sign. In the samples examined the lowest increment 
of temperature noted was 80.4° and the highest 90.2°. The mean rise of 
temperature was 85.4°. Cotton oil, therefore, gives more than double 
the increment of temperature shown by pure lard under the same con- 
ditions. 

{/) Crystallization point of fatty acids, — Since cot ton oil is Quid even at 
low temperatures (viz, 0°) the determination of its melting point is 
only a matter of scientific interest. The point at which its free acids 
crystallize is, however, easily determined according to the method of 
Dalican. 

D 

The mean crystallizing point of the acids examined was 

The minimum was 30.5 

The max inn mi was :'..».('» 

Tlx- high temperature reached in the crystallization ol the fat acids 
is a peculiar characteristic of cotton Oil, In lard there is not a very 
meat difference between the temperatures indicated by the melting 
point of the glycerides and the crystallizing poinl of the fat acids. In 
cotton oil, however, these temperatures are widely removed. 

((/) Melting point of fatty acids. — The melting poinl of the free acids 
of cotton oil was determined both in capillary tubes and b\ observing 
the deportment of the acid on the bulb of a delicate thermometer pro- 
tected by a glaSS flask. The two sets of data were almost identical. 

Oi 
The mean melting point of the acids exanriucd was 39. I 

M;i I i ii i ii I n * ' ' 

Mi nil. in in M.6 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 421 

The characteristics mentioned above are emphasized when the melt- 
ing point of the fat acids is considered. These numbers seem much 
higher tban would be expected. 

B.— Chemical Properties. 

(a) Volatile acids. — The statements made in regard to the volatile 
acids in a pure lard arc also applicable to cottonseed oil. 

For 5 grammes of cotton oil the quantity of deci-normal alkali con- 
sumed is slightly greater than for pure lard and may amount to as much 
as .5 cc. 



If cocoa oil is present the number will be much higher. 5 grammes of 
pure cocoa oil will consume from .7 to .S cc of the deci-normal alkali. 

(b) Saponification equivalent. — In the samples reported the mean 
saponification equivalent was 283.8, although in some instances quite a 
difference was noticed from this figure. 

(c) Iodine number. — Cotton oil possesses in a much higher degree 
than lard the property of absorbing iodine. This is due not only to the 
Large percentage of oleic acid which it contains, bat also probably to 
the presence of a small amount of linoleic acid or some homologne 
thereof. In the samples examined in no case did the iodine number fall 
below 100 and in one instance it rose to 110.97. The mean iodine num- 
ber was 100.02. 

(d) Reaction with nitrate of silver. — A more important property even 
than its pow r er of absorbing iodine is shown by cotton oil in the reduc- 
tion of silver to the metallic state under certain conditions. The te>t 
may be applied, as already indicated, cither to the oil itself or to the 
fatty acids thereof. The silver is either reduced in the form of a metal- 
lic mirror deposited on the sides of the vessel or in mi ante black parti- 
cles which give a brown or black appearance to the liquid, [n some 
cases the liquid shows a greenish tint. 

OTHEB PROPERTIES. 

The refined cotton oil used in adulterating lard lias a pleasant taste, 
js almost odorless, and possesses a faint yellow color. Its resemblance 
to olive oil is so marked that for all culinary purposes it forms an ex- 
cellent substitute therefor. Cotton oil possesses slight drj ing qualities 
which render it unlit for lubricating delicate machinery. Therefore n 
can never take the place of sweet oil for that purp 

B IT.AKIM'.S. 

The stea rines used in the adulteration of lard are derived eh icily from 

lard, certain parts of beef fat, and cotton oil. These are generally called 
lard stearioe, oleo Btearine, and cotton oil atearine, respectn fly. 



422 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

A. — Physical Properties. 

(a) Specific gravity.— The specific gravity of stearines may be taken 
in their solid state or in a liquid state at a high temperature, 40° to 100°. 

(b) Melting paint — The melting points of the stearines are higher 
than the natural glycerides from which they are derived. A prime oleo- 
stearine from Armour & Co., Chicago, showed a melting point of 51.9°. 
A prime lard stearine from the same firm showed a melting point of 
44.3°, which is only slightly higher than the mean melting point of pure 
lards. The lowest melting point of any stearine examined was a sample 
of dead-hog stearine from J. P. Squire, Boston, which was 33.2°. The 
highest observed melting point in the stearines examined was an oleo- 
Btearine from IS". K. Fairbank & Co., Chicago, showing 53.S°. The high 
melting point of the stearines is a characteristic of great value in the 
adulteration of lard since it serves to counteract the influence of the 
cotton oil, which of course tends to lower the melting point of any lard 
mixture into which it may enter. The influence of the various con- 
stituents, however, on the melting point does not seem to be propor- 
tional to the respective quantity of each therein. For instance, a mix- 
ture of 25 per cent, of cotton oil having a melting point below zero, with 
25 per cent, of an oleo-stearine having a melting point of only about 
li above the normal for pure lard, with 50 per cent, of pure lard of 
normal melting point, might not show a lowering of the melting point 
at all proportional to the presumable influence of the cotton oil present. 
The cotton-oil stearine, as might, be expected, has a melting point be- 
low that of the similar products derived from lard and tallow. 

(c) Color reaction. — The color reactions produced in the stearines by 
sulphuric and nitric acids are much the same as those produced in the 
original glycerides from which they were derived. Cotton-oil stearine 
shows a less intense color perhaps than th9 original oil; while in the 
case Of tallow and lard stearines the coloration is not marked enough to 
be susceptible of description. 

(d) Refractive index, — The refractive index of the stearines appears 

to be slightly lower than thai of the original glycerides. The high re- 
tractive index which was noticed in the case of the original glycerides 
Of the cotton oil was also found in I he stearine from that source. 

(e) Rise of temperature with sulphuric acid. — With the lard and tallow 

Stearines DO degree Of comparison can be made in the rise of temper. i- 
ture with that produced in the original glycerides, on account of the 

high initial temperature which is necessary for the conduct of the ex- 
periment Allowing for the difference in initial temperature, however, 

the stearines deport t lieinselves very much as the original glycerides. 



V,.— Cm \n. \i Propbri [ES. 



(a) Volatile acids. — The amount of volatile acids in the stearines 
mentioned is bo small as to be negligible! 












LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS 4'2o 

(b) Saponification equivalent. — The numbers are essentially the same 
as those of the original glycerides. 

(c) Iodine number. — The percentage of iodine absorbed by the stear- 
ines is, as is to be expected from the fact that they contain less tri- 
olein, markedly less than that of the original glycerides. The faet that 
the stearines possess that property in this diminished degree is of quite 
as much importance from an analytical point of view as their high 
melting point. Thus the mixture of a stearine with a low iodine num- 
ber with cotton oil of a high iodine number shows a percentage of 
iodine absorption not greatly different from that of pure lard. One 
prime oleo-steariue examined showed an iodine absorption of only 17.38 
per cent. Another oleo-stearine showed 2G.81 per cent. The lard stear- 
ines showed higher numbers, viz, in two cases 44.24 per cent, and 49.78 
per cent. The cotton-oil stearines showed iodine numbers varying 
from 85.28 per cent, to 90.39 per cent. 

(d) Reaction with nitrate of silver. — The stearines react with nitrate of 
silver in a manner entirely comparable with that of their original glyc- 
erides. The colors, however, are not so marked nor the precipitate of 
silver quite so abundant with cotton-oil stearines as with the oils them- 
selves. 

(e) Microscopical appearances. — Stearine derived from beef or mutton 
tallow shows under the microscope the characteristic fan shaped crys- 
tals already noticed. Lard stearine, on the other hand, gives crystal- 
line groups similar to those already mentioned in the case of lard. 

(/) Moisture. — Properly prepared stearine contains only a trace of 
moisture. 

OTIIER ADULTERANTS OF LARD. 

It has been claimed that other substances than those mentioned have 
been used in the adulteration of lard, but these claims seem to rest on 
no valid foundation. Among these substances, dead-hog greaseordead- 

hog stearine is the one mosl Frequently mentioned. The term dead-hog 
grease La used to indicate the oil or lard obtained from animals which 
die of disease, or arc smot hered in transportation, or die on the way to 

the slaughtering houses. The tat of animals verj recently dead, unless 
death takes place from disease, and taken before any decomposition 
Bets in, -has chemically the same characteristics as that derived from 

animals slaughtered. 1 1, how ever, t lie animals have been dead BOme 

time before rendering a considerable decomposition of the glycerides 

takes place and the amount of free acid in the fat is thus largely in 

creased. Such fat also shows a distinctly unpleasant odor, bj which it 

can readily he detected from genuine laid. Peanut oil and some other 
vegetable oils have also been mentioned as adulterants Of lard. While 

it may be true thai many attempts have been made to use the above 
Bubstances in the adulteration of lard on a small scale, it is also quite 



424 FOODS AM) FOOD ADULTERAS 

true tlial such attempts have never attained any importance from a 
commercial point of view. 

(G) PROPERTIES OF ADULTERATED LARDS. 

In external appearances to an unskilled person adulterated lards are 
not appreciably different from the pnre artiele. An expert, however, 
is generally able to tell, by taste, odor, touch, and grain, a mixed lard 
from a pure one. There is usually enough lard in the adulterated arti- 
cle to give to it the taste and odor of a genuine one. Mixtures of fat, 
however, have been made, and perhaps sold as lard, which contained no 
hog grease whatever.* In the following descriptions an endeavor has 
been made to give the chief characteristics of an adulterated lard on 
the same plan as the descriptions of pure lard and the adulterations 
thereof which precede. 

A.— Physical Properties. 

(a) Specific gravity. — But little stress can be laid upon the numbers 
representing the specific gravity of adulterated lards since the materials 
of which they are composed have nearly the same specific gravity as 
the pure article. The addition of cotton oil, however, raises the specific 
gravity, and when this substance is present in quantities above 15 per 
cent, its influence on the specific gravity of the sample is marked. At 
35° the specific gravity of adulterated lards varies from .906 to .910, 
compared with water at same temperature. 

(b) Melting point. — The melting point of the adulterated lards is in 
most cases nearh the same as l hat of pure lards, but in some samples 
lower. This arises from the fact, which has already been noticed, of the 
low melting point of the cotton oil, which is one of the principal adul- 
terants w^'i\. The numbers representing the melting points of adul- 
terated lards, which will be found in the following tables, emphasize the 
fact which has already been noted that the lowering of the melting point 
is not theoretically proportional to the content of cot ton oil found in the 
adulterated lards of commerce. In a number of samples of lards con- 
taining cotton oil from Fairbank & Co. the lowest melting point found 
was 31.3 , and the highest 1 1.1) % and the mean 38.1°. In the series of 

samples from Armour & Co. the lowest melting point noticed was 38.0°; 

and tin' highest 1:5.:; \ and the mean 40.6 . The melting point of the 
Armour samples approaches much nearer that of pure kettle rendered 
lard than those received from Fairbailfc & Co. the latter being nearly 
the same as for steam lards. Although the melting point is QOl of 

itself a property of very great importance from an analytical point of 

View, yet its determination should never be neglected in a comprehen- 
sive analj tical examination. 

{(•) Color reliction. — The amount of coloration shown by an adulterated 

* CotoUneia a mixture of cotton oil and qjeo-stearlne, prepared i>.\ X. K. Fairbank 
d Co. [t is sold under its true name and ool m lard. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 425 

lard when treated with sulphuric or nitric acid, depends chiefly upon 
the percentage of cotton oil which it contains. Since from a commercial 
point of view the introduction of a small amount of cotton oil would not 
prove profitable, we find in the adulterated lards of commerce, as a gen- 
eral rule, strong color reactions. It might be possible, however, to mix 
with a pure lard so small a quantity of cottou oil as to render doubtful 
to the analyst the character of the color reaction produced. Some of 
the colors produced in the adulterated lards examined, as copied from 
the note books, are as follows: " light brown," "pink red brown,* 1 "light 
yellow red," " light pink," ;t deep brown," " red," u dee}) red brown," etc. 
The appearance of a pinkish tint is often found in adulterated lards 
containing a notable portion of beef-fat stearine, although this colora- 
tion is not considered a certain indication of the presence of this sub- 
stance. 

(d) Refract ire index, — The refractive index of the mixed lards naturally 
varies with the proportion of cotton oil which may be present. The 
greater the quantity of cotton oil the higher the refractive index. The 
refractive index of the Armour mixed lards is decidedly lower than that 
of the Fairbank samples. The following is the number representing 
the mean refractive index of the Armour samples at 25°, viz, 1.4G34. 
The number representing the mean refractive index of the Fairbank 
samples is 1.4651. The refractive index is a much more important prop- 
erty in the sorting of buds than the melting point. 

(r) Rise of temperature with sulphuric acid. — As is to be expected, we 
find here also great variation, depending on the nature and the quan- 
tity of the adulterants present. The presence of tallow stearine lends 
to diminish the lise of temperature with sulphuric acid, while cotton- 
oil has the opposite effect. As the relative proportion of these two 
ingredients and also tin' amount of pure lard varies, we may expect 
corresponding variation in the temperature shown on mixing the lard 
with sulphuric acid. In the samples of Armour's lards examined, the 

highest rise of temperature noticed was 58.9° and the lowest ll'.l . 

This latter number is almost identical with that furnished with pure 

lards. In Fairbank's lards the least rise of temperature noticed was 

51.3 and the greatest 68.8 . These numbers show a larger proportion 

Of cotton oil in the Fairbank than in the Armour samples. This rise 

of temperature as a diagnostic sign is valuable, and its determination 

should never be omitted. 

(/) Crystallization paint of fatty acids.— In Armour's lards the mean 

temperature of crystallization for the fa< acids was found to be 39.8 . 
In the Pairbauk lards it was .'i7. 1 . 

\<n Melting i><>int <>/J'<it acids,— The mean melting point of the fat acids 
m the Armour samples was 42.8°. In the Pairbauk samples it was 
10.G . 



426 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

B. — Chemical Properties. 

(a) Volatile acids. — The remark which has been made in regard to tbe 
volatile aeids of pure lards and their adulterants is also applicable for 
mixed lards. The amount is so minute as to be of no value from an 
analytical point of view. 

(b) Saponification equivalent. — The numbers representing the sapon- 
ification equivalent do not afford any particular indication of the kind 
of adulteration used. In the samples of Fair bank mixed lards examined 
the mean saponification equivalent found was 270.4. In the Armour 
samples it was 275. 

(c) Iodine number. — The amount of iodine absorbed by a mixed lard 
gives a valuable indication of the kind of the ingredients which have 
been added to it. It has already been seen that the stearines, especially 
those derived from tallow, have a very low iodine number, while cotton- 
seed oil has a very high one. It is therefore possible to mix these two 
substances together so that the resulting iodine number may be about 
the same as that of pure lard, viz, GO per cent. In the samples of the 
Armour mixed lards examined the mixture seems to have been made 
in about the proportion indicated. The lowest iodine number observed 
in these lards was 54.11 per cent., which is decidedly less than that of 
normal pure lard. The highest number observed was 71.10 per cent. 
The other numbers were slightly above those obtained for pure lard. 
In the samples of mixed lards from Fairbank & Co. the iodine numbers 
are much higher. The lowest number observed was 78.21 and the high- 
est 94.78 per cent. 

(d) Reaction with nitrate of silver* — Mixed lards containing cotton oil 
show a reduction of metallic silver in a greater or less degree, accordingto 
the proportion of cotton oil present. In every case where cotton oil was 
known to be present in a mixed bird this reaction was noticed. It would 
DC possible, however, to put so small a portion of cotton oil into a lard as 
to lender difficult the positive detect ion of it by the nitrate of silver test. 

(6') Microscopic appearances. — The mixed Lards, under the conditions 
described further on, .show in the field of vision of the microscope dis- 
tinct tufted crystals of the stearines which have been used as adulter- 
ants. The rhombic crystals of pare lard are also often noticed in this 
field. 

if) Moisture in mixed lards, — Mixed lards generally contain only a 
trace of water. In one instance, however, water appears to bave been 
added as an adulterant, over 30 per cent of it having been found. The 

use Of water as an adulterant of lard, however, is not common. 

Later observation! show thai in samples kepi for several months the reaction 
with nit rate <>f silver Is indistinel and in some oases entirely absent. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 

Comparison of properties of lard and compound lards. 

The mean results of the analytical data are as follows 



427 



Kiii<l of samples. 



Puro lard 

Lard of miaceHaneoi 

Prime steam lard 

Armour's lards 

Fairbank's lards 







_ 


-„ 




? 


3 . 









r. 








— 11 






- a 


c-= 


= — 




gj - 

- "3 

- 'c 

- a 

- T 






S3 

- 


z -„ 


- •_ 
1-= 




Pi 

90 


- 
J. 


*r 


S 












.9053 


280.3 


40.7 


43.3 


.90G7 


274.4 


11.7 


42. 9 




283.5 


37.0 


42.1 


. 9000 


275. 


40.0 


42.8 


. 9095 


279.4 


38.1 


40. G 



= 


■~ 


s 




o 


V 


■"' .— : 


. 


- .-: 


— 


■— ~ 


•~z 


it— 


q 


-~ 


C 






= - 


- 
> 


— . 




- O 




>~z 


o 




•— 










c 


i— i 


- 


- 












39. G 


41.5 




1. 4G20 


39. 6 


45. 7 


64.34 




38 6 


39.9 




1.4623 


39.8 


46.5 


G3. 58 




37.4 


57. -i 




1.4G61 



STATISTICS OF THE LARD INDUSTRY. 

It was developed in the investigations before the Committees on Ag- 
riculture of the Senate and House of Representatives that the animal 
production of lard in the United States is 600,000,000 pounds, of which 
about half is pure lard and the other half pure lard mixed with stearine 
and cotton oil, the "refined n or compound lard of commerce. The an- 
nual exports of lard are about 320,000,000 pounds, of which about 40 
per cent, were compound or refined lard.* 

According to the figures furnished by the Bureau of Statistics, the 
production of lard from 1877 to 1887, inclusive, was as follows: 



ir». 


Total. 


1 IS. 


Total. 

/'< 

517, 660, 000 
1,000 
614,28 




Pounds. 
527, 1 
514,2 

III. ; 


' 







1 



T'.l 




-i 










•Statement of Mr. G. II. Webster befon 

<>f I Ii.lt II, 



I [onse ( 'niiiiuii tee on Asrricull an 



i port 



428 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

The exports from 1873 to 1883 are shown by the following numbers 



Fear*. 


Laid export) <1. 

234, 901, 511 
184, 100, 220 
187,579,377 
198, 008, 212 
2.17, 744,307 
345,693,527 
343,119,208 

405, 436, eta 


Fears. 
1881 


Lard expoi ted. 

i d». 
335. 001, 686 
239, 904. 66 7 
273,230,610 
228,165,733 
301,305,105 
298, 083, 094 
324, 515, 224 






1874 

1875 


1882 


j 18S3 


1875 


1884. 

188.") 


1877 

1878 


1886 

1887 






1880 





If we take the percentage of cotton oil in the compound lard at 40, 
the total weight of oil used in manufacturing mixed lard is 120,000,000 
pounds. 

In addition to this, large quantities of cotton oil are used for salad 
dressing and culinary operations and in the manufacture of a substitute 
for lard, cotolene, which contains no hog grease whatever. 

METHODS OV ANALYSIS EMPLOYED. 

The processes employed in conducting the analytical work, tin 4 re- 
sults of which follow, will now be briefly described. 

METHOD OF TAKING T1IK SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 

(a) By tlic picnometer.— Two kinds of specific gravity flasks have been 
used in tlie determinations of the specific gravities, as represented in 
Pig. 17, viz, a plain Mask with a stopper having a capillary perforation 
and a flask carrying a stopper to which is attached a delicate thermom- 
eter, [f the specific gravity is to be taken at a temperature of LOO or 
thai of boiling water, the plain flask is preferable j if, however, it is to 
be taken at some temperature below that point, for instance, in , the 
flask with the thermometer is used. The manipulation in both cases is 
t be same. 

(b) Graduation of the flasks. — The flasks, having been cleaned, are 
rinsed with alcohol and ether and thoroughly dried, care being taken 

thai the ether and alcohol vapors are removed from the interior of the 
flask. The flask, after it is cleaned, should be handled with dry lingers 

or with forceps. The stopper having been inserted, the dried and 

cleaned llask is weighed empty at the temperat are of t he balance room. 
If the flask DC Wiped With a Silk handkerchief or towel before weighing- 
it should be allowed to stand fifteen minutes in the balance before the 
final weights are taken. The llask is now Idled with recently boiled dis. 
tilled water which, to avoid mixing with air, has not been shaken. It 
iS placed in a bath of distilled water in a vessel with a Hat bottom. 
The bath should contain as much water as is possible to avoid Mowing 



pL f/'8f. 'BycctU-fd Jylt jf^J^ S. <L/J 










~^^J fiprjuj^^. ^^ „ U jl+ci l^L <U^ f ^ ^s ^U HL ^i^!Lf^^ 






LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



429 



into the open neck of the flask. It' the bath is to be kept at the boiling 
temperature the flask should be held steady by a wire attached to 
the edges of the vessel or by some other means. fit" the specific grav- 
ity is to be taken at a lower temperature than batting water, say 40°, 
the flask having been filled with distilled water at a temperature be- 
low 40°, as described above, is closed with the stopper carrying the ther- 
mometer, which is pressed firmly to its place, care being taken that no 
air bubbles are occluded. The temperature of the bath is then raised 
slowly until it reaches 40° to 41°. The temperature of the bath is taken 
with another thermometer. The thermometer of the flask is carefully 
watched, especially as it approaches the required point. When the 




temperature of the bath is only slightly above that required the final 
temperature ia reached only after some time, usually about one-half 
hour. The moment the required temperature is reached any water on 
pop of the capillary tube is removed with blotting paper, the cap is 
placed upon the capillary tube and the picnometer taken from the bath; 
it is at ouce wiped perfectly dry and placed in the balance, where it is 
allowed to remain until the temperature indicated by the thermometer 
is sensibly that of the balance room ; it is then weighed and the weight 
of distilled water which it contains at that temperature determined. \ 
When the determination is to bo made at the temperature of boiling 
water the specific-gravity flask is secured in the bath as indicated and 






<&** 



430 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS 




be water ii tike batli fs thvii 

P 



filled with recently boiled distilled water. 

brought to the boiling point by means of i lamp and tlie boiling con 
tinned for one half hour. Any evaporation Which may tike place from 
the specific-gravity flask is replaced by adding a few diops of boiliu 
distilled water. At the end of the half hour! the stopper t of the flask is 
quickly inserted and firmly pressed into its itosition, any water remain 
ing on the top of the stopper being removed! b y a piece of filter papei 
The flask is then removed from the bath, wiped perfectly dry, placed in 
the balance and weighed as soon as it reaches the temperature of the 
balance room. The weight of the distilled water uhich the flask con- 
tains at the given temperature having been determined, the flask is 
rinsed with alcohol and ether and dried as in the first instance. It is 
then tilled with the fat, the specific gravity of which is to be deter- 
mined, with the same precautions as were used in determining the 
weight of water.* 

Example of specific (jravittj of fat, at 100° (boiling distilled water). 

Crams. 

Weight of flask, empty 11.0956 

Weight of flask+water at 100° 39. 6216 

Weight of water 28.5260 

Weightof flask with fat at 100 36.8691 

Weight of fat 25.7635 

Specific gravity=25.7635-r28.5260=.90316. 

(c) By the Westphal balance. — The specific gravity of a fat can be 
accurately determined by a modification of the balance known as the 
Westphal. This instrument is shown in Pig. IS. 

The principle of the apparatus may be briefly stated as follows: a 

-lass bob is BO adjusted as to be capable of displacing a given number 
of gr. lines, live, for instance, of distilled water at a given temperature 
when wholly immersed in the Liquid and suspended by a line platinum 
wire. These bobs may be had graduated for any temperature, but most 
Conveniently for those already named, viz, 35° or HP and 100 \ It 
is necessary for accurate work with this instrument that the temper- 
ature of the fat Or Oil, the Specific gravity Of which is to be determined, 
should be exactly that for which the bob is graduated, as even a Blight 
\ ariation from the prescribed temperature will produce a serious < i for in 

the result, in order to secure greater accuracy, especially for taking 
specific gra\ itiesal a temperature of 10 . a flue analytical balance can be 
substituted for the Westphal instrument. Such a balance arranged for 
use in this way is represented in Fig. L9. it is inconvenient, bowever, 



I ,, facilitate the i anj occluded air in placing i!i«' stoppers in the flasks, I 

have bad the stoppers constructed \\ ith ;i concave bottom, tin- center of .In- conca> Ity 
being at tin- opening of tin- capillar; tube, 'fin- top of the stopper is also ground to 
;i line edge, bo thai anj liquid Unit maj issue from the capillar^ tube may ilow away 
and i bus escape absorpl ion. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTER J&lONS. 



431 



to use the ordinary balance for this method for temperatures near the 
boiling point on account of the difficulty of conducting the condensed 
vapors out of the balance case. For our work, therefore, we have used 
this balance only for lower temperatures. 








; 



mi 34 RIP! [ON OF IN81 Rl Ml N I. 

The Mohr or Westphal balance is well illustrated in the figure. The 
position of the instrument is shown in equilibrium. The bob is fur- 
nished with a delicate thermometer. Lfthe bob be graduated for the 
displacement of exactly 5 grams of distilled watt-fat 35 . for instance, 
a deep red line indicates that point. The weights aic determined on 
the principle of the ordinary rider. There is one weight for the 5 
grams and <>ne for each 5 of decimal places of the under gram weight 

The beam is SO adjusted as to be in exact equilibrium when the dr\ hob 

is sus] tended in air. It is divided into ten parts. The big weight counts 
5 wheu placed directly over the suspension point of the bob; 1.5 when 

placed at !>; 1.0 when placed .it >, etc.; when a lighter Weight falls 



432 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS, 



on the .same figure with a heavier it is suspended from the hook of the 

latter. 




s£= 



O 




Fig. 19. 



For liquids lighter than distilled water the numbers on the beam 
may be taken to represent the specific gravity. 

Example. 

Let the 5 g weight be at :». 
t he .5 g weight be at I. 
the .05 g weight be at t. 
the .005 g weight be at 5. 

[f the beam is in equilibrium at this disposition of the weights and 
the temperature of the liquid that of the red mark on the bob, the spe- 
cific giavity would be .9145. The actual weight of liquid displaced 
would be 1.5725 g, which divided by 5 = .9J 15. 

Before beginning work with the balance the bob should be carefully 
graduated in pure distilled water, recently boiled and at the required 
temperature. A.ny Variation in the caliber of the bob is thus deter- 
mined, and any accessary correction can be introduced into the result 

obtained. 

To change the expression of the specific gravity from direct compari- 
son with water at any given temperature to the standard of water at 
L5.5 or i . the factor of the co-efflcient of expansion of water must be 
introduced, One cubic centimeter of water at •'»■> weighs 99.418 g. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 433 

There fore a bob which displaces 5 g of water at 35° has a volume 
5.029cc. This volume of water at 4° would weigh, therefore, 5.020 g. 
The above specific gravity referred to water at 4° would be 4.5725-t- 
5.029=. 9092. 
In tabular form the above data are as follows: 

Gram 8. 

Weigh! pf 5.029cc oil at 35° 4.5725 

Y\, ighl of 5.029CC water at 35° 5.0000 

Weight of 5.029cc of water at 4° 5.0200 

Relative weight of oil at 35° to water at 35° equals 9145 

Relative weight of oil at 35° to water at 4° equals 9092 

The change in volume of a fat or oil for each degree of temperature 
is approximately ,0007cc for each cubic centimeter of the oil. The 
weight of a given volume of an oil having been determined at any 
temperature, its weight at the required temperature can be approxi- 
mately calculated. 

Thus, in the above ease — 

Grams. 

5.029cc of oil at 35° weighs 4.5725 

Thru 5.029cc of oil at 4 ; weighs 1 

Then relative weight of oil at 4° to water at 4° equals 9307 

Then relative weighl of oil at 4° to water at 35° equals 93 12 

ESTIMATION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FATS, STEARINES, ETC., 
IN A SOLID CONDITION.* 

(a) Estimation of specific gravity at zero. — A platinum crucible con- 
taining about 20cc is furnished with a line platinum bail, which is fast- 
ened through two small holes drilled into the crucible at opposite points 
near tin' upper edge. To the handle of the crucible at the central point 
is fastened a fine platinum wire, furnished with a loop above, by means 
of which it is suspended from the hook of the balance. The crucible is 
Weighed empty and then in water ;it zero. This is accomplished in the 
following way : 

The pan of the balance is proteced by a wooden bench in the ordinary 

way in taking specific gravities, and on this bench is placed a large 
beaker glass containing a smaller one. The -pace between the two 
beakers is filled \\ ith finely-powdered ice and the small beaker is nearly 
filled with distilled ice-water. 'I he platinum crucible is suspended ;it 
such a heighl as to allow it to be wholly immersed in the water, includ- 
ing the bail and a small portion of the suspending platiiiii! The 

weighl of the crucible having been determined in the water, it is taken 
out, carefully dried, ami about i~> grama of the filtered and melted tat 
placed in it. Thefal is allowed to solidify slowly at ordinary tout] 1 
tares. The crucible with tat is then weighed id the airand placed in 

' Wollny, Milch Zoitung, I8fi 

17319- pt 1 



434 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

the ice-cold water as before and weighed. Before weighing it should 
be allowed to stand for one hour in the water at zero. 

Let V represent the weight of the empty crucible in the air. 

Let t" represent the weight of the empty crucible in the water. 

Let b' represent the weight of the filled crucible in the air. 

Let b" represent the weight of the filled crucible in the water. 

Let S represent the specific gravity. Then S is computed as follows : 



b'— b" — t'+t' 



(/>) In the same manner the specific gravity can be computed at 15°, 
20° or 25°, or at any higher temperature at which the fat or stearine will 
remain in solid condition. 

(c) Specific gravity by Spre?igcVs tube. — (For account of this method of 
procedure consult Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, vol 1, page 5.) 

Much confusion has arisen concerning the real meaning of the spe- 
cific gravities reported for lards and lard adulterants because of failure 
on the part of the authors to state all the conditions. All statements 
of specific gravities should be accompanied by the temperature at which 
they were taken and the temperature of the equal volume of water with 
which they are compared. It would be convenient if some uniform 
practice of stating specific gravities could be adopted by all analysts. 

(d) Notes on methods of computing specific gravities. — The rates of expan- 
sion of lard and the fat oils used as lard were carefully studied by Dr. 
0. A. Crampton, and I insert here his observations thereon. 

All the determinations wen- made very care fully by the methods described, and the 
6gnres given aro in all cases the average of t wo or more duplicates. In the densities 
taken at low t emperat nres the llasks tilled with the samples WON placed in a vessel 
containing water somewhat above the temperature at whioh the determination was 

to he made, and when it bad dropped to this point they were carefully stoppered, taken 
out of the vessel, allowed to cool, and weighed. The determinations al high temper- 
ature weie made by placing the Masks in an oil bath. The heat was raised u as high 
a point as was deemed safe, and at the temperatures used, 190° to 200 ' C, there w as 

Boar< ely a darkening of the contentsof the flasks, ami 1 am convinced that no decom- 
position bad taken place which would alter appreciably the density of tin- sample. 

From the densities taken at these two widely different temperatures the mean In- 

6 in density and the mean co-eliicient of expansion was determined for each 
sample. 

The formula OSed lor this was the one usually given in the hooka:* 

* D D 

= 



(/'- 1 



in w hich 



1 >,, density at the lower observed temporal ure. 

density ;it the higher «>l,>.T\ed t em | h i a t u i e. 

t = lower temporal are. 
f = higher temperature. 

" Walts Dictionary. Vol. Ill, p. 71.) 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 435 

Although it appears to uie that the formula as follows would be more correct — 

Do— Do' 



(t-t')I) c 
or, still hotter : 

D„ - D„ 



(r-ox^xw 



Great confusion exists in chemical literature in the expression of specific gravities. 
I have referred all my results to water at 4 C C, believing that eventually all specific 
gravities will he stated in these terms, as is the custom in continental Europe. 

The absolute densities are calculated from the formula A = 8 -f-/c, in which 

A = Co-efficient of absolute expansion. 

S = Co-efficient of apparent expansion in glass. 

k = Co-efficient of cubical expansion of glass =.0001 ' 

The weights were not reduced to a vacuum, and no correction was made for the 
thread of merenry projecting above the bulb. The specific gravities of the different 
samples at various temperatures are also given in the the last columns of the table, 
these having been calculated by means of the co-efficients of expansion. 



43G 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 





Specific gravities of fata and oils at 


tarlous 


temper- 








i . 


cl 

o 






- 
- 
=. 


Description. 


- 
- 

© 
- 
= 


Z " 

= S 

pi 
p 

4 


- 

Pi 

< 


5 

- 


•8 

-- 

< 




Lards. 
Leaf lard rendered in laboratory U. S. Department 


mi 


.89679 


. 89760 


° a 

(+190? 

i + -i* 








5673 


Intestinal lard rendered in laboratory U. S. Depart- 
ment Agriculture 


mi 


. 89G35 


. 89725 


(+190? 


.80:? 15 


5C72 


Head lard rendered in laboratory U. S. Department 


mi 


. 89S16 


. 89906 


mi 








5591 


Squires' pure lard, made by J. P. Squires & Co., 


l + 4 3 


. 89700 


. S9790 


J+-IS 








5606 


trd'a puro lard, made by Cassard & Co., Balti- 


mi 


. 89848 






.80888 






5610 


Armour's compound lard, made by Armour A: Co., 
Chicago, 111 




. 89940 


. 90030 






5611 


Armour's compound lard, made by Armour &. Co., 
Chicago, 111 


mi 


. 89854 


. F9044 










5646 


Tairbank's compound lard, made by 1'ah'bank &Co., 
Chicago, 111 


mi 


. 90000 


. 90090 








Lard stearin ex. 


5613 


Laid stearine used in Armour's compound lard 


C H -50 I 


.88836 


. 8885] 




. 7D579 


5643 


Lard stearine used in Fairbank's compound lard 

Beef fat and oleo-stearinet. 




. &-8S0 






. 70677 


5607 


Pure beef fat from the testicle, obtained from Prof. 


C +50? 




.80118 


( 1 100 ? 


.80289 








Oleo-stearine, used In Armours coin pound lard .... 










.70487 


6644 


oil o-stearine, used In Fairbank's compound lard 

Cottonseed stearinr. 


S 1 B0 j 
1 










5<;7."> 


Cottoi -■ i 'l -t' arine, obtained from Prof. i>. \\'< 


J ,10 J 




.9010:! 








Crude cotton leed oil, obtained from Prof. l>. Wesson 
Crude cottonseed oil, obtained from Southern 


mi 


,01648 
.91744 

.01623 
,01636 
.01667 


.01505 
.01701 
.01638 
.01625 
.01678 


i , ii 
i ii 

< 1 100 I 
( 1 100 j 

1 

( | 1001 


.81118 
.81578 

. 80525 
.81017 

I 




Summer yellow cottonseed oil, obtainod from South- 




Summer white cottonseed oil, obtained from South- 
ii n Cotton Oil Trust 

Winter yollo* cott< 1 oil, obtained from South. 

i i n Cotton Oil Trust 




Winter white cottonseed oil, obtained from South- 

1 1 ii ( 'uttiiii oil Trust 




Refined cottonseed oil used in Armour's compound 




5617 


D 1 _ 




.01070 










Pun olive oil, obtained from Prof. S. P. Sharp! 




.01034 









LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 
aturcs, icilli mmn co-efficient of expansion. 



437 



. 80940 
. 60780 
. 80977 
. 8G54G 
. 8134.', 
.81111 

.81189 






3 



° a 

<+_40j 
< +190) 

i±J0l 
I +190 > 
5+_40? 
t +■ 95 5 
<+_40J 
1 +187 5 

I 
C+_40 



I 

I 

I 






I 

I 
I 



| 



. 000G13G 
. O0OG213 
. 000G203 
. 000G147 
. 0006095 
.0006190 
.0006221 
.0000184 

.0000171 
.0006115 

.0006410 

I 



gs 






08.2 B 

-~ /. > 



r = 
£ ■ 

£ 5 

- _ 

"S 



. 0007624 

. 0007704 

. 00C7G83 
.0007726 

. 0G076G0 

.0007748 

. 0007707 

■ 
I 



. 0007874 
. 0007954 

. 0007970 
. 0007910 

.0008017 

I 

I 



Specific gravity (appari nl ). 



+ 15._5j 

"+ 40 



d= 






i I 



.91206 
.91458 

.91144 
.90714 












.-9005 






+ 4° 



. 89195 






9 






.8G191 



507 4 
5611 



. 


















438 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



It will be seen that the results confirm, in the main, Allen's * conclusions in regard 

to the generally uniform rate of expansion of' all fats and oils. The average iucrease 
in density in my samples would be rather lower than the figure he gives (.00064) for 
each degree C. as his figure was evidently calculated from the formula 

, Do- IV 

Lt'-t)D 

Koppt gives a figure very nearly the same as mine, for the mean absolute expan- 
sion co-efficient of olive oil, viz : .00060;]]-'. 

In the lards and oils in the above table, I also determined the density by the plum- 
met at +35° C. These results, together with results'calculated from the flask deter- 
minations, so as to make the figures comparable, are given in the following table : 

Comparison of result* with plummet and with specific-gravity flask. 





With plummet, 

d^ 


"With specific 
gravity tlask, 

+ 35° 


Lards : 

1 


.9058 
.9047 
.9060 
.9044 
.90G7 
.90G9 
.9068 
. BORA 


. 90508 
. 90484 

.90G71 
. 90797 
. 90GG7 
.9081G 


o 


3 


4 




G 




8 


Cotton-seed oil: 

1 


ii 





3 


4 




G 




1 OH : 

1 


2 




. 90H8 







This sle; i comparisons adds testimony to die acouraoy of the Archimedean 

method for taking specific gravities, and it is certainly a most rapid and convenient 

means to this end. I went through marly the entire samples used in our 

lard investigation, about 150 in all, in three Hays. 1 would call attention to a Blight 
inaccuracy in Allen's description of the method. On pi I. II), he says : "The 

plummet should have a displacement of exactly 5co (in water). This should, of 
course, be bo would be comparing volume with weight, a-* it is the 

weight of the arapl< di ... laced which is used as the numerator of the fraction of which 
the weight of v is the denominator in the expression of its specific 

gravity. The orror nronltl nol be so grcnl whore the volume and density of water 
identical 15 C, but still quite an appreciable error would 
be introduced w h< n tin-, determination on the sample was m to 50 C, as one 

fat, for example. There is much nc I foi raoi exact mathematics in calculating 
specific gravil ies, and more uniformity in methods of < (pressing them among chemists 
1 1 1 1 . 






t Lteb. Ann., 93, p.129, 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



439 



(b) Meltintj point. — The term melting point applied to a glyceride does 
not indicate a physical state capable of being appreciated with definite- 

ness. As usually employed it indicates the temperature at which the 
fat becomes transparent ; but this temperature, as is well known, varies 
under certain conditions chiefly dependent upon the initial temperature 

of the body. A more definite point, and one usually capable of being 
ascertained, is that where a thin disk of the fat, when freed from the 
attraction of gravitation and left to its own molecular forces, assumes a 
sensibly spherical state. The melting point given in the following 
analytical tables, with the exceptions to be noted, has been determined 
by an apparatus based on the above principle. This apparatus is de- 
scribed in the Journal of Analytical Chemistry, volume 1, part 1, pages 
39 et .say. 








• 11 








- ^1 ' 


- W;\-; 


^_ 






**-^- 






















w " rv -**^^ 

























1 



RIM K >\ I 'I \vv \i; \ i r-. 
The apparatus. Pig. 20, COn818t8 of •: 1 ) an ar.ur.ite t hormometer lor 

a degree; (2 & less accurate thermometer 



reading easily tenths of 



440 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

for measuring the temperature of water in the large beaker glass; (3) 
a tall beaker glass. 35cm high and lOcra in diameter; (4) a test tube 
30cm high and 3.5cm in diameter; (5) a stand for supporting the appa- 
ratus : ;()) some method of stirring the water in the beaker, for example, 
a blowing bulb of rubber and a bent glass tube extending to near the 
bottom of the beaker; (7) a mixture of alcohol and water of the same 
specific gravity as the fat to be examined. 

Manipulation. — The disks of the fat are prepared as follows: The 
f/^ v fl melted an d ii lter ed fat is allowed to fall from a dropping tube from a 
aJ _ x height of 15 to 20 cm on to a smooth piece of ice floating in water. The 
disks thus formed are from 1 to H em in diameter and weigh about 
200 milligrams. By pressing the ice under the water the disks are made 
to float on the surface, whence they are easily removed with a steel 
spatula. 

The mixture of alcohol and water is prepared by boiling distilled 
water and 95 per cent, alcohol for ten minutes to remove the gases which 
they may hold in solution. While still hot the water is poured into the 
test tube already described until it is nearly half fall. The test tube 
LS then nearly tilled with the hot alcohol. It should be poured in gently 
down the side of the inclined tube to avoid too much mixing. If the 
tube is not tilled until the water has cooled, the mixture will contain so 
many air babbles as to be unlit for use. These bubbles will gather on 
the disk of fat as the temperature rises and finally force it to the top of 
the mixture. 

The test tube containing the alcohol and water is placed in a vessel 
containing cold water, and the whole cooled to below 10°. The disk 
of fat is dropped into the tube from the spatula, and at once sinks until 
it reaches a part of the tube when' the density of the alcohol — water is 
exactly equivalent to its own. Here it remains at rest and free from 
the action of any force save thai inherent in its own molecules. 

The delicate thermometer is placed in the test tube and lowered until 
the bulb is just above the disk, lu order to secure an even temperature 
in all parts of the alcohol mixture in the vicinity of the disk the ther- 
mometer is moved from time to time in a circularly, pendulous manner. 
A tube prepared in this way will be suitable for use for several days; 

ill fact, until the air bubbles begin to attach themselves to the disk of 
fat. In no case did t he t wo liquids become so thoroughly mixed as to 
lose the property Of holding the disk at a fixed point, even when they 

were kept for several weeks. 
In practice, owing to the absorption of air, if has been found neces- 

\ to prepare new solutions every third or fourth day. 
The disk haviug been placed in position, the water in the beaker glass 
is slowly ho;i(od and kept COn8tautly Stirred by means of the blowing 

apparatus already described. 

When the temperature Of the alcohol-water mixture rises to about 

(i below tie- melting point the disk of fal begins to shrive! and gradu- 
ally rolls up into an irregular ma 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATE 

The thermometer is now lowered until the fat particle is eveD with 

the center of the bulb. The bulb of the thermometer should be small, 
so as to indicate only the temperature of the mixture near the fat. A 
gentle rotary movement .should be given to the thermometer bull), which 
might be done with a hind of clock-work. The rise of temperature 
should be so regulated that the last 2° of increment require about ten 
minutes. The mass of fat gradually approaches the form of a sphere, 
and when it is sensibly so the reading of the thermometer is to be made. 
As soon as the temperature is taken the test tube is removed from the 
bath and plaeed again in the cooler. A second tube, containing alcohol 
and water, is at once placed in the bath. It is not necessary to cool the 
water in the bath. The test tube (ice- water being used as a cooler) is of 
low enough temperature to cool the bath sufficiently. After the first 
determination, which should be only a trial, the temperature of the 
bath should be 80 regulated as to reach a maximum about 1.5° above 
the melting point of the far under examination. 

Working thus w ith two tubes about three determinations can be made 
in nil hour. After the test tube has been cooled tin 1 globule of fat is 
removed with a small spoon attached to a wire before another disk of 
• at is put in. 

(d) Refractive index. — The apparatus used in determining the refrac- 
tive index is one described by Professor Abbe in a brochure entitled 
" Xeue Apparatezur Bestimmnng des Brechungs-und Zerstreuungsver- 
niogen tester und fliissiger Korper." The apparatus is represented 
in Fig. 21. For lard it is necessary that the index of refraction be de- 










termined In ;» room where the temperature is higher than 30° and i 
higher than 35°. I'm determining the refracth c index of o inns 

the temperature must be considerably at* For ven high tem- 



442 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

peratures I used the hot-room of a Turkish bath establishment. In 
order that the fats might quickly come to Ihe temperature of the room 
and also be in a convenient apparatus for dropping upon the paper 
holder they were kept in a JJ shaped small tube-holder. The one arm 
of the tube was drawn out to an almost capillary diameter, bent over at 
the end forming- a spout to facilitate the dropping of the oil upon the 
paper receptacle. 

The apparatus is operated as follows : Fine tissue paper of rather 
heavy body is cut into rectangular pieces 3 cm in length by 1.5 cm in 
breadth. One of these pieces of paj er is placed on the lower of the 
two glass prisms of the apparatus. Two or three drops of the oil or 
the fat are placed upon the paper and the upper prism carefully placed 
in position SO as not to move the paper from its place. In charging the 
apparatus with the oil in this way it is placed in the horizontal position. 
After the paper disk holding the fat is secured by replacing the upper 
prism the apparatus is placed in its normal position and the index 
moved until the light directed through the apparatus by the mirror 
shows the field of vision divided into dark and light portions. The dis- 
persion apparatus is now turned until the rainbow colors on the part 
between the dark and light Held have disappeared. Before (hung this, 
however, the telescope, the eye-piece of the apparatus, is so adjusted 
as to bring the cross-lines of the field of vision distinctly into focus. The 
index of the apparatus is now moved back and forth until the dark vd'j;^ 
of the held of vision falls exactly in the intersection of the cross-lines. 
The refractive index of the fat under examination is then read directly 
upon the scale by means of a small magnifying glass. To check the 
accuracy of the first reading the dispersion apparatus should be turned 
through an angle of 180° until the colors have again disappeared and 
the Scale of the instrument again read. These two readings should 
fall closely together, and their mean is the true reading of the fat under 
examination. 

METHOD OF DETERMINING REFRACTIVE INDEX AT rEMPERATURES ABOVE Tin: \<n:- 

\i \i 

The refractive index of lards, stearines, etc., can not be taken at the 
Ordinary room temperatures. The best method of securing the desired 
temperature is to place the instrument and samples in a room pi<>\ ided 
wilh suitable heaters for main 1 aiuiug the temperature ;it a constant 

point, about 50 . Some stearines may require a slightly higher temper- 
ature. 1 have, in t he absence of ;;n\ such room in our laboratory, used 
the hot looms of thoTurkish bath to good advantage. A nother method 
jested by Mr. Von Schweinitz has been employed. The instrument 

is placed on the top of an air-bath maintained at a constant tempera- 
ture. The room must also be kept without change of tempera! ure. The 
instrument should be allowed to remain OD 1 lie bat h for at least one 
hour before work is commenced. If necessary it can be protected with 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



443 



a hood, the side next the window being provided with an opening for 
admitting the light, and the one next the operator being entirely open. 

The thermometer should rest with its bulb as closely as possible ap- 
plied to the metallic casing of the prisms of the instrument. The tem- 
perature marked by it is much lower than that of the space between the 
prisms occupied by the film of oil under examination. For purposes of 
comparative readings a cotton oil is used, the refractive index of which 
is carefully determined at 25°. 

When the temperature of the red actometer on the air bath has become 
constant, the same cotton oil is placed on the prisms, and after waiting 
for 10 to 20 minutes for the same temperature to be established, the 
index at that temperature is read off. The lards, Btearines, etc., are 
then examined at that temperature and reduced to the standard of 25 c 
by the factor determined as above. After the introduction of each fresh 
sample the instrument is allowed to stand for 10 to 20 minutes in order 
to secure a uniform temperature for all the readings. 

nple. 



Cotton oil. Xo.i. 




!,'. I.;.' 2 


= 1.4674 


IM.a' 1 


= 1.4565 


Factor, 


.0109 


ExternalT 


= 49.5 



Calculated internal! 



At these temperature a large number of indices of lards, stearines, 
fat acids, etc.. was taken. 



No 


M.it. rial. 


rved 
index. 


corn 


8261 


Prime lard stearine 


1. 4M4 


Neutral Lard 

Kettle rend< red Lard 

Golden cotolene 


1. L614 

14.40 l. UM9 
1.4601 
1. 1475 1.4584 
1.4470 


■ ' :1 




do 

White i ottou oil st( 




Fellow cotton mi ttearine ... 




Pure Lard fat ..< Id 




Lard t'.ii acid . . 










< !oiopouud 1 



(r) Rise of temperature. — The rise of temperature which fats and oils 
undergo when mixed with sulphuric acid was determined in the follow- 
ing manner, The apparatus used is represented in Pig. 232. The idea 
of this piece of apparatus was derived from a description given by 



444 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Dr. \Y. Ramsay of an apparatus used by him in the determination of 
the molecular weights of nitrogen trioxide and nitric peroxide.* The 
rise of temperature is not wholly independent of the initial tempera- 









Flo. 22. 

ture, and hence the initial temperature should be kept as nearly const; 
as possible; since most lards ami adulterated lards melted at rathe 
high temperature are still liquid at 35° this temperature become 
very convenient starting point. For oleo stearines the initial tempe 
i are should be 10° higher. 



uit 
r a 
s a 
ra 



DKSCIUPTK '\ OF APPARA I IS. 

The test tube should be about ::i cm in length and 5 cm in diameter. 
it is furnished with a stopper with three holes, the one through the 
center earrj ing a delicate thermometer graduated to at hast fifths of a 
degree. The second opening carries loosely ;i glass stirring-rod, which 
is bent into a coil ;it the lower extremity. This coil is so arranged as to 
have the thermometer pass through its center. The third perforation 

carries the funuel, which is bent outwards and upwards and holds the 
Sulphuric acid. 

'Journal of the Chemical Society, June, 1888, page 622. When in use the whole 
Lower pari <>i tin- apparatus is inclosed in . as mentioned in 

the I. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. I I" 

Manipulation. — Fifty cc of the fat or oil to be examined are placed in 
the test tube and warmed or cooled, as the case may be, until the tem- 
perature is the one required for the beginning of the experiment, say 
10 cc of the strongest sulphuric acid at the same temperature are placed 
iu the funnel, the stopper being firmly fixed in its place ; the test tube 
containing the oil is placed in a non-conducting receptacle; the wooden 
cylinder lined with cork, used in sending glass bottles by mail, I have 
found to be convenient for this purpose. A glass rod which, fits loosely 
in the stopper, so as to be moved rapidly up and down, is held by the 
right hand of the operator; with his left hand he opens the glass stop- 
cock of the funnel and allows the sulphuric acid to flow in upon the oil. 
The glass stirring-rod is now moved rapidly up and down for about 20 
seconds, thus securing a thorough mixture of the oil and acid. The 
mercury rises rapidly in the thermometer and after two or three minutes 
reaches a maximum, and then, after two or three minutes more, begins 
to descend. The reading is made at the maximum point reached by the 
mercury. With pure cottou oil, linseed oil, and some other substances 
the rise of temperature is so great as to produce ebullition in the mass, 
causing it to foam up and fill the tube. To avoid this smaller quantities 
of acid should be used or the oil in question be diluted with a less 
thermogenic one, so that the maximum temperature may not be high 
enough to produce the effect noted. 

I have thought that the value of this method of work might be in- 
creased by measuring the total temperature produced in mixing given 
quantities of fat and sulphuric acid, and hope soon to have a calorimeter 
tructed suitable for this purpose. 

Experiments made with the apparatus described above in regard to 
the influence of the initial temperature have .shown that a difference of 
D)° in the initial temperature would cause a difference of from 2 C to •"> 
in the maximum temperature reached during the operation. 

Drot*. 0. E. Munroe, of NYw poi t, has made extensive experiments on 
the rise of temperature produced by the mixture of oils with sulphuric 
acid. He has published iQlta ^ his work in volume 10 

16 Reports Of the American Public Health Association.* 
In a manuscript communication from the author under date of July 
20, I888j Profe sor Munroe makes the following additional observations 

Upon his method and results : 

d in mixing, using u turn- table upon which the vessel was put, 
or mechanical si irrer placed in the v< ., bnl while using Maui 

proportions there were discrepancies I could not explain. So then I varied thi 
portion until w hon I reached 20 cc of oil to 25 cc of li 30 

ooncui ilts. I had the <>il and acid and vessels all at the samo initial tern- 

ire. The oil was i on into ;i Deal ther- 

mometer was inserted and initial temperature marked and oompared with thermom- 
eter hanging b< Bide burette containing <>il and at run is am 

iblic Eealth A --•>. iation, reprints for the author an article 
entitled - The ' >.»<! and for Medicinal Pui 



446 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



■whole stirred with a glass rod, the lower part being flattened parallel to vertical axis, 
and stirring continued until the mercury ceased to rise. 

Or* course the final temperature varied with initial temperature, hut the idea was 
to have samples of standard oils on hand and as the temperature varied in the room 
from day to day to make comparisons at same temperature between oil under ohser- 
vation and standard oils. Variations also occur with late of stirring, bat it is re- 
markable how close agreement is with practice. For example I cite — 

Experiments made June 18, 1884, with standard oils. 




Experiments with mixtures of above oils. 



Oil. 



Lard, winter 

Cottonseed, summer 

Lard 

Cottonseed 

Lard 

Cottonseed 

Lard. 

Cottonseed 

Lard 

Cottonseed 

Laid 

Cottonseed 

I. Mil 

Coiton.seod 






o 
71.0 
G7.4 

7.". ."i 
09. I 

7(i. I 



^ s- 
C c 
r. ~ 

r - = 


"3 

o o 

a 








45 


45. 9 


41. 1 




47.5 


•19. 5 


19. 5 




1 :. 1 


41.0 


49.8 


48. 1 







Ratio of 

oils 
taken. 



—0.9 



1.1 



-2. 



0.0 



; i. 



—0.2 



The calculated increase is ba ed on the aumbers 30° and 53° given in the firsl 
table. [1 will beobserved thai the differences reduced to percentages are large, and 
tli.it the initial temperature of the mixed <>iis are above those of tin- original oils, 
yol there is no question aboui the detection of the mixture ami the estimation of the, 
proportions on o commercial scale, in point of fact what we demanded was pure lard 
nil only to conform to a certain standard and tin- tesl as applied secured this. I have 
hcttcr results than those cited, bul this is probably as good as the average inspector 
will get. 

It is said, however, thai beeoh-nnt-fed pork ;j,i\«'s an oil that yields results like 
cottonseed. In a thorough studj of the i abject this should be considered as well as 

the e fleets of ag€ anil of I he (! i lleleli t 1 lie ill oils of leliliini;. 

(/) Crystallization point of fatty acids.— The maximum temperature 
reached during the process of crystallization of the fatty acids is also a 



LARD AND LAKPJ ADULTERxVTI- 



447 




valuable indication, The method pursued in determining this point is 
as follows: The fatty acids were prepared in sufficient quantities to 
afford about 50 or CO grams for analytical purposes. The apparatus 
used is represented in Fig. 23. 

A very delicate thermometer with a long bulb is used, the thermom- 
eter being graduated into tenths of a degree; the readings of lire mer- 
cury are made with a small eyeglass. 
A test tube about 15 cm in length and 
2.5 to 3 cm in diameter is filled with 
the melted fatty acids. The tempera- 
ture at which the acid is melted should 
be sufficiently high to secure a com- 
plete liquefaction. The tube contain- 
ing the fat is placed in a stopper 
parried in a bottle so that the whole 
of the fatty acid may be contained in 
that part of the tube protected from 
external currents of air by the bottle. 
The bottom <>f this protected bottle 
should be warm, so that its tempera- 
ture may be several degrees higher 
than the crystallizing point of the 
fatty acid. This precaution is neces- 
sary to avoid a too rapid crystalliza- 
tion of tic- fatty acid in the bottom of 
the tot tube and to secure as nearly 
as possible a uniform crystallization 
throughout the whole mass. The 
thermometer is suspended in such a 
manner that the bulb may occupy as 
nearly as possible the center of the 

fatty mass. The thermometer should 
be protected from currents of air and 
should be kept perfectly still. The 
position of tiie mercury in the ther- 
mometer i < .ii. -fully watched by the 
attendant as it gradually sink toward 
the crystallizing point. When the crystals of the acid begin to ap- 
pear in the bottom and on the sides of the test tube the descent of 
the mercury will become v.-iy .slow and linall\ cea-e ; the In 
point reached by the mercury should be noted. As the crystalliza- 
tion extends inward toward the bulb of the thermometer a point will 
be reached when the mercury will begin to risej at that point, the test 
tube being held by the left band, the thermometer should be take n bj 
the right hand of the operator and the partially crystallized mass of tat 
thoroughly stirred by tinning the thermometer three or tour times 




: 



448 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERAN 

around the tube in both directions. Care should be exercised that at 
the cud of this operation the bulb of the thermometer should hang as 
near as possible in the center of the crystallizing mass. Directly the 
above operation is accomplished the mercury will be seen to rise and 
this rise of temperature will continue for some time, after which the 
mercury will remain stationary for one or two minutes. The highest 
point reached is taken as the true temperature of crystallization. 

((/) Melting point of the fatty acids. — The melting point of the fatty 
acids can not be determined in the same apparatus and by the same 
methods as those described for the fats themselves, because the acids 
are soluble in alcohol. It should be remembered that the melting point 
of the fatty acids is slightly above that of the glycerides, and the first 
determination in every case should be solely for the purpose of deter- 
mining approximately the temperature at which the fat melts. 

METHOD OF DETERMINING MELTING POINT or r.v 1 ACIDS. 

(1) By capillary tubes. — The fat acid in a capillary tube is placed in a 
beaker of water, together with a delicate thermometer. The water is 
slowly heated and the point at which the fat becomes transparent is 
noted. 

(2) In a closed flash- . — This method, easy of application and giving 
satisfactory results, was proposed by Mr. Oma Carr. 

The bulb of a delicate thermometer is coated with the fat acid, and 
the thermometer, by means of a cork is fastened in a round llask of 
250cc capacity. The bulb of the instrument should occupy as nearly 
as possible the center of the flask. The cork should have an air pas- 
sage for the equalization of the pressure. The llask is slowly heated in 
a current of warm air, or otherwise, and as the melting point is ap- 
proached a rotatory movement is given to it. When the fat melts it is 
seen to collect in ;i small drop on the lowest part of the bull), remaining 
stationary while the flask is turned. The thermometer is best held 
horizontally. 

(c) Color reaction. — The re-agents used in determining the color re- 
actions were sulphuric acid of a specific gravity 1.7 and strong nitric 
acid. The method of working with sulphuric acid is as follows : A por- 
celain plate with trough like indentations, such as is used by artists in 
mixing paints, is employed. The plate 18 warmed to a temperature 
slightly above that of the fat to be examined, and inclined slightly so 
that the liquid fat may remain in the lower end of the trough. A lew- 
drops of the fat are placed on the dish, which is capable of holding 

several samples ; a few drops of the sulphuric acid are next placed upon 
the samples of fat and each one stirred with a short glass rod. The col* 
oiat ion produced is carefully noted, the beginning of the change in color 

noticed and its progress watched. The 8ampleS Should also be allowed 

to remain for twelve hours and the coloration produced ;«t the end of 

that time studied. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS, 



449 



The method of proceeding with nitric acid is as folio 
Small test tubes are taken which are filled one third full of the melted 
fat and an equal volume of the strong nitric acid is added, the test tube 
closed by a piece of rubber cloth, held firmly down by the thumb, and 
vigorously shaken for a minute. The tube is then placed in a rack and 
the oily layer allowed to separate from the acid. The oil being lighter 
rests upon the top of the acid. The coloration produced is studied in 
the same manner as has been indicated for sulphuric acid. 

METHOD OF DETERMINING THE RELATIVE PROPORTIONS OF STEARIC 
VXD OLEIC ACIDS IN A MIXTURE OF THE TWO. 

The method proposed by Dalican and Jean rests upon the use of data 
of temperatures produced by the act of crystallization of the two acids. 
Tli is point is determined in the manner already described. 

The proportions of the two acids are then calculated from the follow- 
ing table : 



5 E <s 

- 

40 

40* 

41 

«M 

42 

4-i 

43 

-11 

1 


Z _; 

Ed - 

~ 


z 

g s 

- 


= = o 

- S z 

- -- 


: . 

-- o 

_ | 

Z ■ 
- 


o 

■A 

- 
- 


35.15 

M. 10 
38.00 

13, 70 
49.40 


57.00 
50. 0") 

45. CO 


4G 

48 

48i 

50 


53.20 

57.0:> 
58.90 
61.73 

60. 50 
71.25 
72. 20 
75.05 


41.80 
39. 00 

37.05 
30.10 
33.25 
28. 50 

22. 80 

10.95 



For mixtures of acids such as are afforded by the saponification of 

Compound lards, the table appears fco !>»' valueless. Many of the tem- 
pera lures of crystallization of sncfa acids, as can be Been from the tables 
of analyses, fall below 1<> . 

Dr. Crampton, to whom 1 assigned the microscopic examination of 
the lards and lard compounds, has contributed the following account of 
the work : 

CRYSTALLIZATION 01 I LT8. 

Mi< amination. -Probably the Aral application <>t" tin dm «'t" the d 

■cope for distinguishing b ! from different sources was bj Hoi 

who obtained crystals from beef fat, tallow, Lard fat, batter, 

"Jour, de Pharm, e( <!<• ( !him., 
L7319— pt 1 1 



450 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

etc., by dissolving them in a mixture of alcohol and ether, cooling the eolations, and 

allowing the fats to crystallize ont. lie claims that he could distinguish the crystals 
obtained from different fat»s in this way, and gives illustrations made from drawings 
of the various forms of crystals. The delineations are very crude and poor. 

In the famous "Chicago lard case"* microscopical methods were employed by ex- 
perts for the defense to distinguish pure lard from lard adulterated with beef fat. 
J >i . \\\ T. lielfield seems to have been the iirst in that trial to point out the differences 
between crystals of these fats obtained from their solutions in ether or alcohol, and 
bis methods and conclusions were followed and coutirmi'd by most of the scientific 
experts employed by the defense. Dr. Belfield claimed to be able to recognize in this 
way as little as 10 per cent, of beef fat in lard, while some of the other gentlemen 
thought that as low a proportion as 5 per cent, could be shown. Twelve photomicro- 
graphs were submitted by Dr. Beliield as part of his testimony, and are reproduced 
in the report of the trial. They consist of crystals obtained from pure lard, both 
steam and kettle rendered, pure tallow, lard mixed with 30, 20, and 10 per cent, of 
beef tallow, and crystals from the three suspected samples of lard, "Fowler's" Nos. 
1, 2, and 3. The reproduction is fairly good, but the amplification is not stated. 

In Part I of this Bulletin is presented a discussion of the microscopical appearances 
of the various fats used in the adulteration of butter, especially the characters pre- 
sented by them when viewed by polarized light, with photomicrographs prepared by 
Messrs. Richards & Richardson. t These are intended especially to show the use of 
the microscope with polarized light in distinguishing butter from its adulterants, the 
former having, unless it has been melted and cooled or crystallized from solvents, no 
crystalline structure, hence showing no refracting bodies when viewed by polarized 
light, while the substitutes, involving as they do in their preparation previous melt- 
ing and consequent crystallization, show a variegated field. Some of these photo- 
micrographs represent crystals obtained from lard and beef fat by crystallization lion: 
ether or alcohol, but the illumination by polarized light does not give the perfect de- 
lineation of the shape of the individual crystals necessary for their differentiation. 

Examination of larch and lard substitutes with the microscope. — In the microscopical 
work on t he larger series of samples wsrd in the present examination, and the investi- 
gation of the efficiency Of this test in distinguishing between lard and its substitutes, 

1 had the benefit of the advice and experience of Prof. S. V. Sharpless, one of the 
chemists exployed in the Chicago trial, who has had occasion to examine microscop- 
ically a large Dumber of lards ami lard substitutes in t he course of an extensive com- 
mercial e\|iin nee. Most of the samples were examined by both of OS, and our re- 
sults agreed with very few exceptions. I subjected the entire series of Bamples to a 
veiy careful examination, making several crystallizations in nearly every case, and 

making photo- micrographs of the appearances found in a large number of tie' sam- 
ples, selections from which are reproduced in the plates, 

Methods of procuring crystals for examination.— The methods employed by the ex- 
pert in the Chicago ease, in these microscopical examinations, filed as part of their 
testimony before the Board of Trade, are given on pagi 

it will lie seen that there was considerable diversity in the solvents used, the man- 
ner of crystal I izal ion, and I he method of preparing t he crystals for exam ina I ion. 

My method of procedure was similar to those given, in a general way. About 

2 to 5 g of the samples were taken, dissolved up in L0to20oc of ether in a test tube, the 
operation being generally hastened by warming, the tube loosely stopped with cotton, 
and allowed to stand overnight at the ordinary temperature of the room. The proper 
proportions of substance and solvent cai t !>•■ laid down absolutely as they are de- 
pendent upon so many conditions of temperature, solubility of the sample, etc. The 
proportion giving a prop* i rate of crystallization, neither too rapid ox too slow, can 

"McGeoch, Bveringham d Co. vs. Fovi lei Brothers, published by Knight & Leonard. 
Chicagi I 
r Pp. 34-40. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 451 

best he found by experiment. It will differ with different samples, and with The time 
of year, unless the temperature of the room in which the crystallization takes place 
be artificially controlled. 

The crystals which have formed at the bottom of the test tube are taken out with a 
piece of glass tubing, placed on a slide, covered with a cover glass, and examined 
with a I or £ inch objective. Sometimes the mother-liquor will not be sufficiently con- 
centrated to furnish a medium for the observation of the crystals, the evaporation of 
the ether leaving them dry; iu such cases the addition of a little cotton-seed oil will 
be found advantageous. I did not find any advantage in washing the- crystals ob- 
tained with alcohol. I made a number of experiments in the crystallization from dif- 
ferent solvents, alcohol, benzol, turpentine, chloroform, etc., but obtained often very 
different crystals from the same fat crystallized from different solvents. 

On tin." theory that the crystals characteristic of beef fat are composed of stearine, 
w hich would probably crystallize out before the other glycerides, if present, some of 
the experimenters quoted above lay stress upon the examination of the hist crystals 
formed, with the idea that these would be the beef crystals. I have not found such 
to be the case, the crystals formed when the solution had become concentrated being 
generally like those first produced, except that they were not so perfect and distinct' 
ivc, having been more rapidly formed. Nor have 1 been able often to find such appear- 
ances a- are shown by Dr. Del lie Id's plates of mixtures of lard with 20 and 10 per cent. 
of tallow, and which show the characteristic beef crystals among characteristic lard 
crystals on the same slide. In only two or three cases did I find the two together on 
tin- same field, and I am unable to -bow a single photograph of such a held, though 
I endeavored to make such a slide. My experience has been that the kind of crys- 
tallization first instituted predetermined the general form of all subsequent crystals. 

Siighl differences in the temperature or in the concentration of the solution 
when crystallization began seemed to have an influence upon the form of crystals 

produced when the substance was a mixed fa', so that in some cases where no beef 

crystals could be detected iu a solution even by examining it at different period.-, if 
another .solution were made and allowed to crystallize, beef crystals would appear. 
In Plates xxxi and xxxii are shown the characteristic crystals obtained from pure 
lard when crystallized fromether; in Plate xxxviii the crystals from beef. From 
these it will be seen that these fats, taken separately, give very different crystals, .lust 
w hai these distinctive crystals are is a mosl interesting question, both in a theoret ical 
and practical point of view. Some of the experts quoted above evidently thought, 
from ibeir testimony, thai the lard crystal was palmitine, and the beef stearine. 
<>;beiv seem to think they were both stearine modified and that this glyceride crys- 
tallizes in different form- in the different fats. Whether these different crystals are 
really composed of distinct glycerides, or whether they are mixl urea <•( different but 
definite proportions of the various glycerides found in fat. are questions that can not 
be answered in the present state of om knowledge. All we can say is that Ihej are 
quite different in appearance and that pure lard always gives the one, pure beef fat 

the other form. Not onl\ are the forms of the individual crystals different, but the 

manner ot aggregating tin-ins.' tier is also quite distinct. 

This is seen from Figs, l ami 2, Plate x\i\, iii which a small power 
a i- used in order to show the manner of ttion of the lard crys- 

tals. They form feathery masses, radiating from a longitudinal axis, 
with similar secondary branches. The beef fat crystals on the other hand, 
Bfl .s shown in Plates wvi and \.w in. from splu-ncal masses radiating 
from ;i common center, breaking up under the cover-glass into fan- 

rhe iard oi y stale make rather a difficult subject to photograph : thej are \ < i \ thin 
and the difference in transparency between them and the field is vcrj little. The 
flight refraction Igos shows their outline on t ho plates, but only 

a v. r\ delicate impression ii made on account of the vwy thin ■ 



$ 
452 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

shaped clusters, often witb a peculiar twisted appearance. If the in- 
dividual beef fat crystals are magnified further tliey still show their 
needle-like form, but by increasing the amplification of the cluster of 
lard crystals, shown in Fig. 2, Plate xxix, for instance, we would get a 
similar appearance to that of Fig. -f, Plate xxx, or Fig. 9, Plate xxxm, 
and by a still higher power the terminations of the crystals are plainly 
shown as in Fig. 5, Plate xxxi. The differences between the typical 
crystallization of beef and hog fat are thus easily recognized; if now 
the mixture of the two fats gave, on crystallizing, a mixture of the dif- 
ferent forms in the proportion of the mixture, the recognition of such a 
mixed fat would be very easy even though the proportion of the one 
ingredient greatly preponderated. But such has not been my experi- 
ence ; instead of obtaining from a mixture of 10 per cent, beef fat and 90 
per cent, lard, for example, a crystallization containing a great many 
lard crystals with a few beef fat crystals scattered amongst them, as 
shown by Dr. Belfield, I usually found a uniform kind of crystalliza- 
tion, which varied from either typical form, but which resembled more 
the lard. Some of these were extremely difficult to identify positively, 
and I was obliged to recrystallize repeatedly and vary the conditions 
before I could obtain sufficiently characteristic forms. Take the appear- 
ance shown in Fig. 12, Plate xxxiv, for instance: the manner of ag- 
gregation is like that of beef fat crystals, but if the individual crystals 
are examined by a high power, it will be seen that they are not needle- 
shaped and pointed, but plates with obliqne terminations, although not 
nearly so thin or tabular as the typical lard crystals. Most of Armour's 
lards presented these difficulties, the appearance shown in the two fig- 
ures on Plate xxxv being exceptional in this respect, and showing very 
plain evidence of beef admixture. Most of them gave appearances simi- 
lar to Fig, L2. In two of Armour's lards, vi/. serial Nos. 5557 and 5559, 
1 was unable to find any evidence of beef fat admixture; the crystalli- 
zation showing always good typical lard crystals. Compound lards 
from lard and cottonseed oil only would react in this way. In fair- 
bank's Lards on the other hand, which contain a larger proportion of 
beef fat, it is often difficult to obtain anything except the beef fat ap- 
pearance. Pure lards .sometimes give appearances, which might be 
mistaken for beef fat. big. l, Plate \\\, for example, if viewed with a 

low power might possibly be mistaken lor beef fat aggregations, but this 

mistake need not be made if the terminations of the crystals be carefully 

examined. The lard crystals when tinned up on edge sometimes look 

like beef fat crystals, rn the examination of a sample suspected of being 
e impounded with beef fat, it is the beef fat appearance, of course, that 

is to be son-lit for, unless there is some special reason for knowing 
whether it contains any laid at all, and as soon as a characteristic beef 
fat crystallization is 0b8< rved the object of the examination is attained. 
1! none but lard crystals are observed at lit \ however, it must not be 

concluded at once that the sample is a pure lard, but \\w crystallization 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 453 

must be repeated, and only after a number of recrystallizations have 
been made, and many slides taken with no appearance of beef fat crystals 
can it be decided that no beef fat is present. I should say, as a result 
of my own observations, that as small an admixture as 20 per cent, of 
beef fat can readily be detected, but I should hesitate very much about 
guarantying a detection of 10 per cent, or less, as the experts in the 
Chicago case were confident of doing. 

The presenceof a large amount of cotton seed oil facilitates, of course, 
the detection of beef fat admixture by the microscope. That is, a com- 
pound lard made up with say 10 per cent, of beef fat stearine, 50 per cent. 
of lard, and 40 per cent, of cotton seed oil would be more likely to give 
a characteristic beef fat crystallization than one made up with 10 per cent. 
stearine. 65 per cent, lard, and 25 per cent, cotton seed oil, for the pro- 
portion of lard to beef fat would be greater in the latter case and hence 
more likely to predetermine a formation resembling the lard crystals, 
tlnderthe ordinary conditions of crystallization no crystals would likely 
be obtained from the cotton seed oil. The crystallization shown in Fig, 
18, Plate xxxvr, was obtained from a concentrated solution of cotton- 
peed stearine in ether after it had stood at ordinary temperatures for 
nearly a week. 



454 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLAT] 
Plate XXIX. 

Fig. 1. Lard from G. Cassard & Son, Baltimore. Serial No, 6606. 

Fig. 2. Lard from intestine of hog rendered in laboratory U. S. Department Agricult- 
ure. Serial No. 5673. 

Plate XXX. 

Fig. :>. Lard from G. Cassard & Son, Baltimore. Different crystallization from Fig. 1. 

Serial No. 5606. 
FlG. 4. Prime steam lard from C. II. S. Mixer, inspector, Chicago, 111. Serial No. 

Plate XXXI. 

FlG. 5. Leaf lard rendered in laboratory U. S. Department Agriculture. Serial No. 
5674. 
6. Lard from intestine of hog rendered in laboratory l*. S. Department Agricult- 
ure. Serial No. 561 

Plate XXXII. 

Fig. 7. Lard from J. P. Squire & Co., Boston, Ma ffo. 5591, 

FlG. ' w . Same as Fig. 7. Another slide. 

Plate XXXIII. 

Fig. 9. Lard from Jacob Sbafer, Baltimore. Serial Xo. ~>~,:<o. 
Fig. 1". Leaf lard rendered in laboratory. Serial No. 

Plate xxxi v. 

Fi<;. 11. Leaf lard rendered in laboratory. Serial No, 5674. 

Fig. 12. Refined lard from Armour & Co., Chicago, 111. Serial No. 5611. 

Plate XXXV. 

Fig. 13. Refined lard made by Armour & < <>.. Chicago, [11. Serial No. 5610. 
Fig. II. Same as Fig. 13. Another slide. 

Plate XXXVI. 

Fig. 15. Refined hud made by Fairbank x Co., Chicago, 111. Serial No. 5569. 
Fig. 16. Refined lard made by Fairbank & Co., < liicago, III. Serial No. 5574. 

Plate XXXVII. 

Fig. it. Lard stearine made by Armour d Co., Chicago, 111. Serial No. 5613. 
Fio. 18. Cotton irine from Southern Cotton Oil Trust, Serial No. 5( 

Plate XXXVIII. 

In;, i urine from X. K. Fairbank, Chicago, III. Serial 

. Same as 1 i «_r. 19. Another Blido. 



BULL No .13 DI7 OF CHEMISTRY. 



PLAT K 




CASSAR] ) S LARD x 30 







/'* 



i\ r j 









- 



BULL. No. 13. DIV OF CHEMISTRY. 



IM.ATK XXX 











CASSATTOS LARD x 30 






K 




'•-». 



it 



i 
















BULL No 13 DIV OF CHEMISTRY. 



PI.AT E XXXJ 




LEA F ].Al<]) x L8 







I N 






BULL. No. 13. DIV. OF CHEMISTRY. 



PLAT K XXXTJ 



/> 




*M 



A 




1 



sorih'KS LARD jc65 



i 




S( >UIH K S !..\1\ I ) x 









BULL. No. 13. DIV. OF CHEMISTRY. 



PLAT E 'XXXin 



Fig 9 




SHAFERS l.AK'U xlL" 



K. v to 




KD 



: 






• 



BULL No. 13. D1V. OF CHEMISTRY. 



1M.AT E XXXIV 



Fid 11 










^*> 









l 



w*.s 



V 



* 



LEAF LARD x < ; 5 




AKMOU] 















I J 1..\T 1- 














■ 



BULL No. 13, DIV. OF CHEMISTRY. 



PLAT E 



y 



Fio J 



*?*! 



FAIRBANKS REFINED LARD 







FAIR 






• 



BULL. No. 13. DIV. OF CHEMISTRY. 



PLATE XXXVjr 



Fid i: 



' 









WZ& 



m 



PHI Ml-: l.AK'l) STEARINE x:65 







C( ITTON on. STKAK 1 N K 






M.n-.z't 



BULL. No. 13. DIV. OF CHEMISTRY. 



PLAT E 







FAIRBANKS OLEO- STEARINE . 




FA IK". 



LARD AND LABD ADULTERATIONS. 



455 



B.— Chemical Properties. 

(a) Volatile or soluble and insoluble acids.— The determination of the 
volatile acid is made in the apparatus represented in Fig. 24. The solu- 
ble acid may be estimated by the process described in Bulletin Xo. 1G, a 

resume of which follows.* 




hi jl MAM SC 



:lluI 



Fig. 24. 



METHOD I -Hi: llli: DRTERMINATIO! wi» INSOLUBLE kCIDS. 

EeagenU — (i) A standard semi-normal hydrochloric- acid solution, 
accurately prepared. 

(2) A standard mal soda solution, accurately prepared j each 

1 it. contains .0040 grams Of NaOB and neutralizes .0088 gram 
butyric acid, < ',! I ( > ... 

(3) Aii approximately semi-normal alcoholic potash. Dissolve LOgram 
of pood stick potash in 1 liter of 05 per cent, alcohol, redistilled. Tfa • 
solution must be clear and the Roll iiee from carbonates. 

(l) A 1 per cent, solution of phenolphthalein in 95 per ceut. alcohol. 

Saponification is carried out in rubber-stoppered beei bottles hold- 
in- about 250 cc, or iii a round-bottom strong flask u^i\ in distillatioi 

About 5 grams of the melted butter fat, filtered and freed from u 
and salt, are weighed out by means of a small pipette and beaker, n hich 

" Bulletin N 



456 * v FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

are rewejghed after the sample has been takeu oui and run into a. sa- 
poniticatioo bottle; 50 cc of the semi-normal potash are added, the 

bottle closed and placed in the steam-bath until the contents are en- 
tirely saponified, facilitating the operation b.y occasional agitation. The 
alcoholic potash is measured always in the same 1 pipette, and uniformity 
further insured by always allowing it to drain the same length of time, 

viz, thirty seconds. Two or three blanks are also measured out at the 
same time and treated in the same way. 

In from five to thirty minutes, according to the nature of the fat, the 
liquid will appear perfectly homogeneous, and when this is the case the 
saponification is complete, and the bottle may be removed and cooled. 
When sufficiently cool the stopper is removed and the contents of the 
flask rinsed with a little 95 per cent, alcohol into an Erlenmeyer flask 
of about 200 cc capacity, which is placed on the steam-bath, together 
with the blanks, until the alcohol has evaporated. 

Titrate the blanks with semi-normal 11C1, using phenolphthalein as 
an indicator. Then run into each of the flasks containing the fat acids 
1 cc. more semi normal IIC1 than is required to neutralize to potash in 
blanks. The flask is then connected with a condensing tube 3 feet 
long, made of small glass tubing, and placed on the steam-bath until 
the separated fatty acids form a clear stratum on the surface of the liq- 
uid. The flask and contents are then allowed to become thoroughly 
cold, ice- water being used for cooling. 

The fatty acids having quite solidified, the contents of the llask are- 
filtered through a dry filter paper into a liter llask, care being taken 
not to break the cake. Two hundred to three hundred cubic centime- 
ters ol* hot water is next poured on the contents of the llask, the cork 
with its condenser tube reinserted, and heated on the steam bath until 
the cake of acids is thoroughly melted, the llask being occasionally agi- 
tated w it b ;i circular motion, so that none of its contents are brought On 
the cork. When the fatty acids have again separated as an oily layer, 
the llask and its content s are cooled in he-water, and the liquid filtered 
through the same filter into the same liter llask. This treatment with 

hot water, followed by cooling and filtration of the wash-water, is re- 
peated three limes, the washings being added to the the fust filtrate. 
The mixed washings and filtrate are next made up to 1 liter, ami 1(10 vv, 
in duplicate, are taken and titrated with dcci normal NaOll. The volume 

required iscalcuated to the Liquid. The number so obtained represents 
the measure of deci-normal NaOH neutralized by the soluble fatty acids 

of the butter fat taken, plus that corresponding to the excess of the 

standard acid used, viz, I cc. The amount of soda employed for the 
neutralization is to be diminished, for the l liter, bj 5 cc, corresponding 

to the excess Of I CC ' N. acid. 

This corrected volume, multiplied by the factor .0088, gives the buty- 
ric acid in the weight of butter fat employed. (See table.) 



LARD AND LAKD A RATIONS. 



457 




458 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



The flask containing' the cake of insoluble fat acids is inverted and 
allowed to drain and dry for twelve hours (Fig. 24 bis), together with 
the filter paper through which its soluble fatty acids have been filtered. 
When dry the cake is broken up and transferred to a weighed glass 
evaporating dish. Remove from the dried filter paper as much of 
the adhering fat acids as possible and then add them to the contents of 
the dish. The funnel, with the filter paper, is then placed in an Erlen- 
meyer flask, a hole is made in the bottom of the filter paper, and it is 
thoroughly washed with absolute alcohol from a wash bottle. The flask 
is rinsed with the washings from the filter paper and pure alcohol, and 
these transferred to the evaporating dish. The dish is placed on the 
steam-bath and the alcohol driven off. It is then transferred to the air 
bath and dried at 100° C. for two hours, taken out, cooled in a desicca- 
tor, and weighed. It is then again placed in the air-bath and dried for 
another two hours, cooled as before, and weighed. H there is no con- 
siderable decrease in weight the first weight will do; otherwise, re- 
heat two hours and weigh. This gives the weight of insoluble fat acids 
in the quantity taken, from which the percentage is easily calculated. 

Table for tin calculation of soluble fatty acids. 



KOH Sol. 


Equiva- 
lent. 


X 

10 

X;i()ll. 

+. 2.", 
25 


Equiva- 
lent. 

. 0602 
.0990 


X 

10 
X.iOII. 


Equiva- 
lent. 


10 

x.utll. 


Equiva- 
lent. 


10 


. 0968 


50 


.1012 


Grams. 
. 0946 


11 




12 


.1056 




. 1078 


50 


.1100 


"J 


. 1122 


13 




25 


,1166 




.1188 


7."> 


.1210 


14 






. L254 






7."> 


- 


15 




2.-> 


. 1342 


DO 




7.", 


. L386 


Id 


. 1 108 


2.') 


,1430 






7."i 


. 1171 


IT 


. 1 190 


u:> 


.1518 




. 154 1 






L8 




25 


. L6O0 




. 1628 






19 


. 1072 


2.-. 


. 1694 


56 


.1710 









.1760 




. L782 


r,o 


1 


75 




-1 


.184* 


25 


. 1H70 


50 


. 1 80S 


7:. 


. 1914 


• . i 


. 2024 


25 
26 


.2046 


50 
50 




7"> 









21 


.2112 


•jr. 


.2184 


50 


.2156 


7.". 


.2178 





. 2200 


•J.'. 






. 22 1 1 


7.". 


. 2266 









.2310 


50 








27 




2.'. 




DO 




77. 









25 




.Mi 




7:. 




• 




25 


1 






75 






.2640 















The table gives the weight of soluble acids (butyric, etc.) for each 

. ter of a cubic centimeter of deri-normal alkali from 10 to .'50. 



LARD \ND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 459 

nple. 

Grams. 

Weight fat taken 

X 
No. cc .,. alkali used 25. 50 

Less 5cc due to lcc « acid 20.50 

Wei glit soluble fat acids L804 

Per ceil t. soluble fat acids 

The modification introduced into the above method is in making the 
flask in which t lie saponification takes place and from which the dis- 
tillation is made the same. For this purpose a specially-made flask 
such as is used in the digestion in the Kjeldahl method of determining 
nitrogen is employed. This flask is made of extra heavy glass, well an- 
nealed and quite heavy, so as to resist the pressure of the tension of the 
alcohol at the temperature of the steam-bath. The sample of fat with 
the saponifying re agents having been placed in the flask, a stopper of 
soft cork is inserted and tied down with a string or wire as represented 
in Fig. 25. The flask is then placed upon a steam-bath and heated for 
one hour, at the end of which time the fats will be found saponified and 
any ether which may have been developed decomposed by the excess 
of alkali present. After cooling the stopper of the flask is removed, 
the alcohol evaporated, and the decomposing acid added, and the dis- 
tillation carried on essentially iu the manner described. 




i 



This method of procedure avoids the possibility of any l«>s.s which 
might ensue in transferring the saponified fats from the vessel in which 
the saponification took place Into the distilling flask. 



460 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



jUp* 



la evaporating the alcohol the residual soap sometimes troths and 
fills the flask. This is avoided by removing the flask from the steam- 
bath when signs of frothing are shown and rolling it in such a manner 

as to coat the bottom and lower fourth of the flask with a film of soap. 
The flask should also be inverted and waved to and fro towards the end 
of the evaporation in order to remove the vapor of alcohol. 
r The method proposed by Wollny* has also been used in the estima- 



tion of volatile acids. The method is as follows : 



- 



, nected with tin; condenser. 
7mm diameter class tube, which, 1cm above the cor 



Five grams of the Ait are weighed into an Erlenmeyer flask; lOcc 
of alcohol at 95 per cent, and 2cc of concentrated soda lye at 50 per 
cent., which has been preserved in an atmosphere free of carbonic 
acid, are added. The Mask, furnished with a reflux condenser, is heated, 
with occasional shaking, in a boiling water-bath for one quarter of an 
hour. The alcohol is then distilled off by allowing the flask to remain 
for three-quarters of an hour in a boiling water bath. One hundred 
cnbic centimeters of recently-boiled distilled water are then added and 
allowed to remain in the water until the soap is dissolved. The soap 
solution is then immediately decomposed with 40cc of dilute sulphuric 
acid (25cc sulphuric acid to 1 liter), and the flask immediately con- 

This connection is made by means of a 

is blown into a 
bulb 2cm in diameter; the glass tube is carried obliquely upwards 
about 6cm and then bentobliquely downwards; it is connected with the 
condenser by a not too short rubber tube. The flask is warmed by a 
small flame until the insoluble acids are melted to a clear transpar- 
ent liquid. The flame is then turned on with such strength that within 
half an hour exactly LlOcC are distilled off. One hundred cubic centi- 
meters of the distillate are filtered off, placed in a beaker glass, lec 
of phenol ph thai ein solution-added and titrated with tenth normal ba- 
rium hydrate solution when the red color is shown the contents of the 
■ 

beaker glass are poured back into the measuring glass in which the 
*. fi/*JJ7f LOOec were measured, again poured back into the beaker, and again 
titrated with the barium solution until the red color becomes perma- 
nent. The distillation should take place in as nearly thirty minutes as 



d^/Va^OH 



/* 



K 



possible. 



.GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR WEIGHING THE PATS FOR THE ABOVE DETERMINATION. 

The difficulty of measuring exactly 5 grams, as Indicated above, is 
considerable. Since the specific gravity of a fat at any given temper- 
ature, saj 35 or 40°, is accurately known, I fmd it more convenient 

to measure nut into the fla8k a volume oi' the melted fat which will 

b approximately 5 grams. This can be conveniently done by a 

graduated pipette, which should previously be warmed to a temperature 

Slightly above that of the melted fat with whi< h it is to he used. Let 

the specific gravity of the fat to be used at the temperature of mea 

M.I. Ii Z.ilnii 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 461 



ment be .003, then the number of cubic centimeters required to weigh 5 
grams would be 54-.903=5.54cc. In a case of that kind, therefore, 5.6cc 
of the fat should be measured into the flask and its weight accurately 
determined. 

Certain precautions are necessary in weighing the samples of fat in 
order to secure uniform results. Since the temperature at which the 
fat is manipulated must be kept approximately at from .35° to 40°, the 
method of weighing from a weighing-bottle is objectionable. Not ouly 
is it difficult to gauge the amount ponied out from the weighing-bottle, 
but the falling temperature influences considerably successive weights. 
The samples should therefore be weighed in the flasks in whicb the 
saponification is to take place. In case this is done in an Erlennieyer 
flask, it can be placed directly upon the pan of the balance, it* the 
round-bottom flasks are used, however, they may either be held in a 
light beaker glass on the pan of the balance or suspended from a hook 
of the balance by a linen thread. The flasks in which the weighings 
are to be made should not be wiped with a towel or silk handkerchief 
within fifteen minutes of the time the weight is taken. It is best in 
weighing these flasks to remove the desiccating material from the inte- 
rior of the balance, so as to avoid changes in the amount of moisture 
>ited on the sides of the flask during the time the weighing takes 
place. The flask should stand in or near the balance for not less than 
fifteen minutes before the weighing is made The flask should be 
counterpoised on the weight-pan of the balance by a duplicate 
treated in the same way. The empty flask having been weighed, it is 
removed from the balance and a measured quantity of the fat run into 
it from a graduated pipette. The flask is now replaced upon the pan 
of tin* balance or suspended from a hook by a linen thread, as before 
Described. The reweighing of the flask should not take place before 
live minutes. SO I liat the fat may have time to cool. 

Example. 

freight "i* flask counterbalanced 4.3611 

Weight of llask jil us fat 

weight offal 6.0100 

In the above case the weight of fat which was required was 5 grams, 
and the amount as measured, as seen by the above results, was al 

exactly that required. At the end of i lie oj.i-rat ion the results can be 
calculated to exactly 5 -rams by simple proportion. 

(b) Saponification equivalent. — About 2.5 grams fat Altered and free 
from water) are weighed into a patent robber stoppered bottle or fl 
as described above, and 26cc approximately semi-normal alcoholic pot 

asli added. The exact amount taken is determined 1>\ weighing a Bmall 
pipette with the beaker of fat. running the fat into the bottle horn tie- 
pi pet te, and weighing beaker and pipette again, or the method described 
Ibove may lie used. The alcoholic potash is measured always in the 
same pipette, and uniformity further insured In nlwavs allowing it t<> 



462 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

drain the same length of time (thirty seconds). The bottle is then placed 
in the steam-bath, together with a blank, containing no fat. Alter 
saponification is complete and the bottles cooled, the contents are 
titrated with accurately semi-normal hydrochloric acid, using phenolph- 
thalein as an indicator. The number of cubic centimeters of the acid 
need for the sample deducted from the number required for the blank 
gives the number of cubic centimeters which combines with the fat. 
and the saponification equivalent is calculated by the following formula, 
in which W equals the weight of fat taken in milligrams and N the 
number of cubic centimeters which have combined with the fat. 

Sap. eqniv. = — ^ - 

If it is desirable to express the number of milligrams of potash for 

each gram of fat employed, it can be done by dividing 5,610 by the 
saponification equivalent and multiplying the quotient by 10. 

PRESERVATION OF THE REAGENTS USED IX DETERMINING THE VOLATILE ACIDS AND 
SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT! S. 

In order to secure uniformity of strength in the deci -normal and ap- 
proximately semi-normal alkali solution employed in the above opera- 
tions, it is necessary that they be preserved out of contact with the car- 
bonic acid in the air. This is best done by the apparatus used for sup- 
plying burettes. In the (J tube of this apparatus is placed some of the 
solution which is to be preserved in the flask itself. The air, therefore, 
which enters the bottle as the solutions are withdrawn is entirely de- 
prived of carbonic acid by passiug through the tube. 

(c) Iodine number — Reagents, — Twenty-five grams of pure iodine dis- 
solved in 500cc of strong alcohol. Thirty grams of mercuric chloride 
dissolved in 500cc of strong alcohol. 

The solution of mercuric chloride ie to be poured into the iodine solu- 
tion, 'fhe iodine solution undergoes a constant change, by which its 
percentage of free iodine is diminished. This has been ascribed to ihe 

presence of impurities in the alcohol, bul is doubtless due to a conver- 
sion of the iodine into hydroiodic acid and to the disturbing influence 

of the chloroform used in the subsequent process. There are, however, 
local changes in the strength of the iodine solution which are noticed 

from day to day, as is indicated in the examples which follow, the iodine 
sol u I ion being apparently stronger some days than others. These loc J 

variations may also be ascribed to the influence of the chloroform on the 

iodine solution. 1 1 is therefore of the utmost importance that the blank 
titrations in which ihe strength of the iodine solution is determined 

.should be made on the measured portion Ol the solution, treated with 
the same amount of chloroform, and allowed to s\.\\n\ the same length 
of time as the samples containing the oils or fats whose iodine numbers 

arc to be determined. By this method, although the streugth of the 

iodine solution ma\ appear to vary from day to day, yet this variation 

will take place pari passu with the change in the strength of the iodine 









i 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 463 

solution in contact with the oils tinder examination. The effect there- 
pore of this change will not be felt upon the number which expresses 
the percentage of iodine absorbed. 

As an illustration of the progressive change in the strength of the 
iodine solution the following examples are given. In each case the 
strength was determined by titration with a deci-normal thiosulphate 
of soda solution : 

A solution of iodine, made up as indicated, showed the following 
strength on the dates indicated : 



Date. 


Iodine 




Thiosulphate 


solution 




solution. 




cc. 




oe. 


April 5, 18S3 . 


10 


= 


18.2 


April 11, 1888 . 


10 


= 


17.8 


April 13, 1888 . 


10 


= 


19.0 


April 14, 1888 . 


10 


= 


18.3 


April 10,1888 . 


10 


= 


18.4 


April 17,1888 . 


10 


= 


18.0 


April 19, 1888 . 


10 


= 


10.4 


April 20, 1888 . 


10 


= 


18.5 


April 23,1888 . 


10 


= 


17.9 



The iodine solution was now allowed to stand in a thick green glass 
bottle until the 10th of November, 1888. On that date it was found that 
lOcc of the solution of iodine required only 7.3cc of the solution of 
thiosulphate soda to neutralize it. It is thus seen that during that time 
two-thirds of the iodine had disappear* '1. 

Deci-normal solution of thiosulphate of soda (hyposulphite of soda), — 
Reduce to a tine powder about .'50 grams of the purest recrystalliaed 
thiosulphate of soda ; spread this salt in a thin layer over a clean white 
blotting-pad; cover with another pad and subject to pressure. After 
two or three minutes remove the pad, pour the powdered salt into a 
dish, and repeat the drying operation. It is better to put the salt all 
into a dish and respread therefrom on the blotting-pad than to stir the 
salt on the pad with a spatula. By this latter method some fibei 
paper may be mixed with the salt. Weigh exactly 24.8 grams of the 
dried salt ami make up to one liter, at the temperature at which the 
titrations are made, with recently-boiled distilled water, since the pure 

Ball 18 u <d the solution will be exactly deci-normal. Its BtrODgth, 

however, may be set by weighed portions of resubli mated iodic 
which about l gram, weighed from a weighing bottle, should be taken 
for each determination. The solution of hyposulphite of sodium may 
also be set in the following way : I rams chemically pure 

bichromate of p >1 I - -inin iu distilled water and make the volume up to 

one liter. Place 20ec of this solution iii a t< ppered flask to 

which has been added lOcc of a 10 per cent, iodide of potassium 

tiOD and 5CC of Btroug hydrochloric acid. Allow the l hiosulphatc of BO 
dium solution to How into the i! □ 8 burette until the \ellow 

color of i he liquid h;ts almost disappeared. Add a few drops of Btarofa 
baste, and with constant shaking continue to add the thiosulphal 

bit ion until the blue color just di ap|u 11 -. The number Of cent iii i' 



464 FOODS AXD-FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

of tbiosnlphate solution used multiplied, by 5 is equivalent to 1 grain 
of iodine. 

Iodide of potassium solution. — One part of iodide of potassium in ten 
parts of water. 

Starch paste. — One gram of starch in fine powder suspended in 100 
parts of water and heated to the boiling-point. The paste must be 
cooled to the temperature of the room before using. 

Manipulation. — The quantity of fat to be used is determined by its 
nature. If it consist largely of cotton oil one-half gram is sufficient. 
If it be mostly pure lard, one gram may be taken. A measured quan- 
tity of the fat corresponding to the weight desired is run into a recently- 
weighed glass-stoppered flask, and after a few minutes the weight of 
the flask and oil taken with precautions already noted. The fat is now 
dissolved in lOcc of chloroform ; from 20 to 30cc of the iodine solu- 
tion arc then added from a burette. If the solution is not perfectly clear, 
more chloroform should be added. The amount of iodine employed 
should be large enough to leave an excess of 8 or lOcc anabsorbed at 
the end of the reaction. It is important, to secure comparative results, 
to have the amount of iodine in excess in each case approximately the 
same. This can be easily secured by a preliminary determination of the 
approximate amount of iodine absorbed. At the same time two blank 
determinations are made to determine the strength of the iodine solu 
tion; the manipulation in all eases being the same as in those samples 
containing the fat, save that the fat is omitted. After standing for two 
hours from 10 to liOcc of the iodide potassium solution are added and 
I.jOcc of distilled water, and the liquids thoroughly shaken together. 
The deci normal solution of thiosulphate of soda is added until the yel- 
low color of the liquid has almost disappeared. The titration is con- 
tinued after the addition of a few drops of starch paste until the blue 
color has entirely disappeared. 

Example. Omnia. 

Weight of flask 74. L288 

at of flask, plus fal 74.8168 

Weight of fiat 

Alter the addition of lOcc of chloroform and 30CC iodine solution the 
llask was allowed to Stand two hours. Twenty cubic centimeters of the 
iodide solution were then added and L50CO Of water, and the titration 
made with deci normal thiosulphate solution, using starch paste as in- 
dicator. The amount of thiosulphate used was 21.2ce. The strength 
of the iodine solution determined by blank experiment was LOcc of the 

iodine solution— 1!>. lee of tbiosnlphate solution. Since 30co of the 
iodine solution were nx d the amount of deci normal thiosulphate solu- 
tion necessary tO Combine With the whole of the iodine would be oS.L'ec : 

then -21.2ec: 37cc, the number of cubic centimeters equiva- 

lent to the iodine absorbed by the fat. in a deci normal thiosulphate 

solution each cubic centimeter equals .<M::7 grams of iodine; the total 

amount of iodine absorbed therefore was 37 X .0127 = .4690g. Then the 

percentage of iodine absorbed = ,4699 x 100-*- .688 = 68.29, 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS 465 

To avoid the disturbing- effect of the chloroform in the above pr» 
Mr. A. H. Allen recommends the use of the fat acids for absorbing 
iodine instead of the natural glyceric 

(d) Reaction with nitrate of Stiver. — * The solutions used have been of 
two kinds, viz: (a) one-fifteenth to one-tenth gram of Ag 2nO ;j in 200cc 
of 95° alcohol and 20cc ether. 

Of this solution lOcc should be taken for each test, (b) One gram 
Ag NG 3 in 200cc of equal parts of alcohol and ether. Of this solution 
lee was used. The mixture of 85 parts of amyl alcohol and 15 parts 
of rape-seed oil was the same in both cases, lOcc of the mixture being 
used in each test. The method of making the test has also been changed. 
I U6e a porcelain dish 8 to 10cm in diameter. The re agents with the 
oil (lOcc) are thoroughly mixed by shaking in a test tube and then poured 
into the dish and placed on a steam bath. The contents of the dish are 
occasionally stirred and the heating is continued for twenty minutes. 
The deposition of silver on the dish is easily seen and the resulting col- 
ors show more clearly on the white porcelain. 

Solution (b) acts more promptly than (a), but the results with a are 
more satisfactory. 

The order of the phenomena will be found to be as follows: 

Fur purr cotton oils. — In from two minutes to three minntes the mixt- 
ure turns red. In live tb ten minutes the red Color becomes BO brown 
B8 to appear black, in thick layers. At the end of the test metallic 
ver is deposited on the sides of the dish varying in color from bluish black 
to reddish purple. The liquid carries also particles of reduced silver 
and has a decided greenish tint. 

With lards containing more than 20 per cent, of cotton oil the phe- 
nomena observed above are repeated, but no' bo promptly. 

Even with very small percentages of cotton oil. the characteristic re- 
actions are given. 

Animal fats give 110 color, under similar 1 re.it men t, or at most a faint 
red after t went \ mini,' 

Of vegetable oils 1 have examined rape seed, olive, peanut, and lin- 
seed. These act with the le agent like the a. imal tats. 

One hundred samples of laid and t went y live san ipl( »80f coi ton oil ha\<- 

been examined by Bechi's test, In do case, where cotton >wk\ oil uas 
been present, has the test failed in detecting it, except In two doubtful 

cases of alleged COl ton 1 tO be mentioned further on. 

of the LOO samples of lard examined 7 1 were ton ml to be adulterated 
with cotton oil. 

BOME I'M i n LB la a« i [< 
The re, ict ion with ei ude COttOD oil is not as sharp as with the i. -lined 

oil. The deep red. color of the .--amide seems to obscure the final color 

reactions. 

Linseed oil gave B leddisli color but m» reduction of >ilver. In three 
* Journal <a' Analytical Chemistry, Vol. •-'. 38S. 

L7319- pt. 1 5 



466 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS 

samples of lard made by us from the leaf, guts, and bead, respectively, 
of the same hog, the reagent acted in the same way. There was a 
slightly greater coloratiou with the head and gut lard than with the hat*. 

In samples of " prime steam lard "passed by the Chicago Board of 
Trade and made from the trimmings of the whole animal, not presum- 
ably including the leaf, there-agent gave, after twenty minutes, a slight 
brownish red color, but no appreciable reduction. 

Iu the whole number of examinations made there were three or four 
ci.M's in which the results appeared doubtful. A slight reduction of 
the silver was observed and a color approaching a brown-black, but not 
with sufficient positiveness to prove the presence of cotton oil. These 
I have included under the adulterated samples. 

In general, it may be said that any degree of adulteration of laid with 
cotton oil which would prove commercially profitable is at once detected 
with certainty by Bechi's test. 

On the oiher hand very impure lards containing no cotton oil will 
give color reactions and a trace of reduction of metallic silver with 
Bechi's re-agents similar but not identical with a trace of cotton oil. 

The reaction is undoubtedly the most valuable single test for cotrou 
oil which has been proposed. 

It remains to be seen what reactions lard which is made from swine 
fattened on mast or cotton meal will give with these reagents. The 
nature of the reducing agent has not yet been determined. It has been 
suggested that it is an aldehyde. It appears to withstand saponifica- 
tion, and Milliau has lately proposed to use the test on the free, fatty 
acids of cotton oil. 

Since cotton oil is sometimes refined with alkaline substances, and 
thus retains an alkaline reaction, it may happen in the application of 
the above test that a sufficient amount of alkali is present to reduce 

the nil rate of silver to oxide. In such a case the proper reaction of the 
cotton oil may be Wholly obscured. To avoid this it is best to make 
the solution of nitrate of silver distinctly acid by the addition of a 
small quantity of pure nitric acid. 

MILLIAU'S METHOD OP APPLYING THE NITRATE OP SILVBB TEST. 

The method of Milliau differs from th.it of Bechi in applying the 

solution of silver nitrate to the fat acids instead of to the original give 
elides. The saponilieat ion may be made in any of the usual ways. 

About 6cc of the fat acids are sufficient for making the test, which is 
carried on iu a test tube L2cc in length and 3cc in diameter. To the 

acid are added L'Oee of Strong alcohol and heat applied until the fat. 

acids are dissolved. Add 2cc of a silver nitrate solution containing 

30 grams of silver nitrate in 100CC Of water; he;it ill steam bath 
until about one third of the alcohol i> evaporated. At the end of this 
time, if the samples be cotton oil or contain cotton oil the silver will be 
reduced to a metallic State, producing a brown or black color in t he 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 467 

liquid, or give particles of reduced silver in the liquid or on the sides of 
the tube.* 

I have emploj'ed the following modification of Milliau's method, which 
acts more satisfactorily than the original. 

The re-agents are placed in a round-bottomed porcelain dish of about 
50cc capacity. The silver reagent is acidified by t lie addition of from .5 
to lec of pure nitric acid. The reaction is conducted on a steam bath. 

With the fat acids of cotton oil the order of phenomena is as follows: 

The fat acid being thoroughly dissolved and warmed to the evap- 
orating point of the alcohol, 2cc of silver re-agent are added and quickly 
stiiicd in with a glass rod. An almost immediate dee]) brown colora- 
tion is noticed, passing quickly to black. As the alcohol evaporates, 
the reduced silver collects in mirror-like scales and is carried onto the 
sides of tiie dish by the escaping alcohol. In a lew minutes the liquid 
begins to grow clear again, and in ten minutes almost the whole of the 
reduced silver i> attached to the sides of the dish. 

The fatty acids for use in this modification were separated in the 
summer of 1888, but on account of a stress of other duties the work 
was not done until in December. The notes of these tests were mis- 
laid, ami in February, 1889, the work was again done. 

The results of the second set of determinations were quite surprising, 
and lead one to suppose that the fat acids should not be kept a long 
while before treatment with the silver solution. t 

In most cases the reactions were quick and satisfactory, but in a few- 
cases entirely misleading. The tat acids of some cotton oils failed to 
give any reductions whatever, and in some of the mixed lards, where 
cotton oil was known to be present, the led net ion was so slight as to [te 

wholly useless for analytical purposes. My experience with more 
recently-prepared Bam pies showed that in such cases the anomalies 

mentioned above are not repeated. With pure lards there was also a 
trace of reduction noticed in some case -. W llich I suppose would not be 

seen in the fresh I \ --prepared samples. The reaction with cottonseed oil 
acids, when it appeared at all was so clear and unmistakable, as to Lead 
me to belie\ e that in these respects the process of Milliau i> an improve- 
ment on the method of Iiechi. In the instances marked '• trace of reduc- 
tion " the sep. nation of a Blight am Hint of a substance was QOticed, 
which, however, was usually of a brown color, and did Dot iv-emMo in 

any marked degree the intense bine-black mirror-like deposit 

by pure col ton oil. The u-e of the terms (nt :>ic!i<ni ami slight 

reduction in the tables should not be construed into evidence of the 

presence of cotton oil fat acids in the BamplCS SO marked. 

The marked and heavj reductions were attended by an immediate 
brown color ou adding tie- re agent, passing rapidly into black. A 

heating for a few minutes the silver WB8 deposited AS Mack mirror like 

" .i.ii in i ;il of the Chemical Society, August ■'> l . I — . 

tThis loss of reducing pow r i:i Bdmp I long kept hi a do- 

lioed by <»i her obeei i 



468 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

particles on the sides of the dish and the liquid became almost colorless 
again. 

WARREN'S CHLORIDE OF SULPHUR TEST. 

The method of investigation employed was the one described by 

Warren.* It is as follows i 1 

• 

Five grains of the oil or mixture are weighed in a tared porcelain dish, which is 
well glazed both inside and out; it should have a capacity of about 4 ounces, BO as to 
avoid loss from spitting. It should not be covered. Two cubic centimeters carbon 
disulphide are stirred in and 2cc of the mixture of sulphur chloride added. It is now- 
placed on a hot water bath and well stirred until tin 1 , action is fairly commenced ; 
when solidified it is placed in a warm chamber, so as to drive off all volatile products. 
When two successive weighings are the same, it is ready for further operation. The 
mass will require breaking up, so as to allow imprisoned vapors to escape. 

The color and consistency at the end of the reaction and when subsequently dried 
should be uoticed ; it is now grouud up or divided as much as possible. The product 
may bo too tough to break easily, or, if soft and sticky, a portion of the unaltered 
oil should be removed first. 

It is transferred to a filter tube and washed with carbon disulphide, so as to remove 
all traces of unaltered oil, etc., which is received in a tared flask; about SOOoo will 
Buffice in any case. It is best to break up the mass after a partial exhaustion, espe- 
cially when the product is hard and tough or soft and adhesive. 

Oils, fats, resins, rosin oils, petroleum, etc., not acted on by sulphur chloride so as to 
yield solid products, may be separated. The melting point of a fat befoie and after 
separation of the oil is an interesting and useful matter. The viscosity of a mixture 
containing an ingredient acted on by sulphur chloride is of importance in examining 
lubricating compounds. Let us, however, remember that some resins yield insoluble 
compounds with sulphur chloride. 

It is advisable to perform the experiments in duplicate, so as to obtain a check on 
the result ; the difference should not exceed w hat we allow on an ordinary commercial 
analysis. 

The washing with disulphide is carried under pressure ; a toot blower u$ convenient, 
but by (losing the top of the filter tube, the clasping il with the warm hand will be 
sufficient. The exhausl will in bo me cases give a further yield of solid products; 
in th< quantity of ohloride be used in the first place, a harder prod- 

uct will he obtained. This is nut to he recommended, unless for special purposes, 

because unilbrini ty is aimed at in the result, and it is not desirable to alter the oils 

too much. 

The exhaust is weighed after removal of disulphide, and when the weighings are 
constant this is deducted from the contents of the dish, by which we obtain the 

weight of insoluble solid products. This procedure is more simple and reliable than 
weighing the insoluble solid product. The smell and color of the exhaust will in 
many eases reveal what t he oil itself is, [n spite of blending, refining, etc. 

The color and tenacity Of the solid product is so very eharaeterist ie in mosi cases 

that no difficulty will he fell in deciding what the oil or mixture is j thaaarachis 
oil in lard or olive oil oan he instantly detected from cottonseed oil. Axachisoil is 

largely adulterated with cotton oil, and 1 have DO doubl that in many OS* ■> \\ here 
cot tun 18 Supposed to be present as an adulterant the intention of a ma nu fact urer has 
been to use araehis oil. I propose to examine thisdouhle adulteral ion short ly. 

Sulphur chloride is sometimes decomposed when added to an oil; the deposited 
sulphur is removed from the exhaust by washing with ether saturated with sulphur. 
The oily portion is taken up, h-a\ ing the sulphur ; we then obtain the weight of the 
exhaust minus the sulphur. It mueh sulphur is present the exhaust has a cloudy 
white appearance. This indicates, generally, that the chloride is in ea 
i hem. News, March *J:<, 1888, p. in. 



LARD AXD LARD ADULTERATIONS. 469 

This method evidently was suggested by the article m Watt's old 
dictionary (Linseed oil), in which the action of sulphur chloride on flax 
oil is described (incorrectly, as Mr. Warren has shown . 

The method was tried by J)r. (J. A. Cramp ton during the lard inves- 
tigations on a few of the samples submitted, viz: 

5645. Cotton oil. 

5G24. Olive oil. 

.'. Peanut oil. 

36. Fairbanks lard. 

5626. Tallow stearine. 

5591. Sqnire'a lard. 

5672. Hog's-head lard. 

On adding there-agent, mixing thoroughly, and heating on the water- 
bath the oils became perfectly solid. The lards did not become solid 
and the stearine was not affected ;it all. 

5591. A pure standard lard was scarcely attacked by the re-agent. 

5672. Rendered in laboratory from the head fat was more readily 
affected by the re-agent. 

Mr. Crampton made a preliminary examination of the solid products 
formed, bul came to the conclusion that they contained no sulphur. It it 
be true that only oleine is attacked by the chloride of sulphur and not 
palmitine nor stearine, then pure lard ought to give a partial product 
insoluble in ether and carbon disulphide. Vet lard so treated is prac- 
tically soluble in the re agents named. The vegetable oils appear to be 
easily attacked by the chloride of sulphur and the action of the re- 
agent docs not MM'in to wholly depend on the amount of oleine present 

I think Mr. Warren's method may prove of great value qualitatively 
and perhaps quantitatively. 

<>i vMIT.Vilvi; DETERMINATION or ADULTERANTS I\ LARD. 

Many attempts have been made t<» determine quantitatively the 
amount of adulterants in lard, 'these attempts have not been a l tended 
with much success. They may be classified as follows : 

ii By weight of undissolved residue when the mixed fat is treated 

with ether. 

(2) By the relative intensity of color produced bj sulphuric acid and 
other re agent s. 

(."») By t lie relative quantities ot silver or gold reduced, or intensity of 
coloration in Bechi's, Millian's, and Qirschsohn'H proce 

(4) By calculation from specific gravity, 

(5) By calculation from iodine absorption. 
By calculat ion from refractive index. 

(7) By determination of the insoluble matter produced by treatment 
with chloride of sulphur. 
(S) By rise of tempi rature with sulphuric ai 
(!>) By calculation from meltiug point. 



470 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

(10) By the coloration produced by beatiug ^ i 1 1 1 nitric acid and al- 
bumen (Brulle's method). 

In the peculiar conditions attending the analyses of mixed lards it is 
unnecessary to say that the most misleading results may be obtained by 
relying on any one of the above methods, and even when all are ap- 
plied the real quantity of added adulterants may not be determined. 

The processes indicated in Nos. 1, 2, and 3 of the foregoiug classifica- 
tion may be dismissed without further discussion. They are entirely 
unreliable for any quantitative purpose. 

(4) BY CALCULATION FROM SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 

In the case of No. 1, approximate results could be reached were only 
one kind of adulterant used, the specific gravity of which, as in the 
case of cotton oil, is distinctly different from that of lard. 

But if one adulterant be used like an oleo or lard stearine having 
a lower specific gravity, and another like cotton oil with a high one. the 
neutralizing effect of the two will render the results of the analysis unre- 
liable. 

Cotton oil, however, has a specific gravity considerably higher than 
that of a stearine is below the number for pure lard ; hence a mixed lard 
containing equal portions of cotton oil and a stearine will have a higher 
specific gravity than pure lard. In point of fact, it may be said that 
where one of these adulterants is present in any notable quantity, say 
15 to 30 pei' cent., the other is also present in proportions approximately 
known, it might be possible, therefore, to construct an arbitrary for- 
mula by which the disturbing effect of the second element could be al- 
lowed for. In this way some approximate number might be reached 
of the respective amounts of adulterants present. 

Example : 

Lei Bpecific gravity of pure lard a1 35° = .905 

Lei specific gravity of pure stearine ;it :'>■"' ' = 
Lei Bpecific gravity of pure cotton <>il al 35' .913 

.The theoretical Specific gravity of a mixed lard composed of these 
bodies iii the proporl ions Stated would be as follows: 

20 per ceut.stearine .903x20 16 

30 per cent, cotton «>il .913x30 - 27.390 
50 per cent, lard = .905 



I per cent. W.700 

Then theoretical specific gravity ,907. 

it is usual t<> mix cotton oil and stearine in compound lards in the 
respective proportions ment ioned above, viz, 1.6 parts to 1.* 

restimony of Qeorge H. Webster, Reporl of Hearii • House Committee 

«• n ! i inc. p 26. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



471 



The specific gravity of the mixture is therefore- 



Cotton oil, 
S tear i nc, 

Mixture, 
Theoretical specific gravity — 



1.5 parts = .913x1. 5= 1.3695 
1.0 part = . 903X1. = . 90:50 

2. 5 parts = 2. 272n 

. 909. 



The following table, therefore, will give the approximate percentage 
of adulterations corresponding to the specific gravities noted : 

Table showing approximate percentage of adulteration corresponding to different specific 
gravities when the adulterants are cotton oil and stearine in respective proportions of L.5 
to 1. 



red spe- 

-i-ivitv, 
at 35°. 


Pure Li id. 


Adulterant. 


Of -which there is— 


Cotton oil. 


Bfc viae. 




Per cent. 


/•• . tent. 


Per cent. 


• 


. 9050 


100.00 


0.00 


0.00 








12.50 




5.0») 


.9OG0 


75. 00 




15.00 


10.00 




92. 50 




22. 50 


15.00 


.0070 


" 


50 00 


30.00 


20.00 


. M75 








25. 00 


- 


25. 00 






30.00 


. 0085 


1 •_'. 50 




52.50 






0.00 


LOO. 00 


60.00 





A general expression for the calculal ions above when applied to other 
standards of temperature and actual results obtained maj be easily 
devised. The general formula however will still rest on the assumption 

that tho COtton oil and steariue arc mixed in the proportions noted, and 

this will b • found to be practically the ca 

Let »= the observed specific gravity at <°. 
a = specific gravity of pure lard al / . 
fr=specific gravity <>f pure cotton oil at I 
r— spcciiic gravity of pure stearine al ( . 

l_j£J. = specific gravity of the mixed adulterants at 

<r=per cent of adulteration. 

Then *=12? 



For illustration we may apply tins formula to the d tta collected in 
tables which follow. Bach analyst should carefully him 

self, in a great Dumber of sample*, the true specific graviti< uious 



472 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

substances entering into the mixture at the temperature ased by him as 

a standard. 

Mean specific gravity of pure lard at 35° 9053=a 

Mean specific gravity of cotton oil at 35° . 9042=?; 

Mean specific gravity of stearine 90i5=e 

Mean specific gravity of the cotton oil and stearine adulterant (calcu . 909] 

lated). &5 

The mean specific gravity s of Armour's was .906. 
Then 



100(.90G-.9(>:): , >) 
Whence 



X ~ 9091 — .905;; 



#=18.42 percent. 

The mean specific gravity of Fairbank's lards was .9095. This shows 
a theoretical adulteration of over 100 per cent., or in other words a lard 
composed wholly of stearines and cotton oil, in which the oil is in slightly 
greater proportions than those indicated above. The iodine number ob- 
tained shows that the lard approximates such a composition. 

(o) BY CALCULATION" FROM iolMNK ABSORPTION. 

The determination of the percentage of iodine absorbed by a mixed 
lard taken alone can not lead to any just idea of the amount of adulter- 
ant added. 

In the ease of specific gravities the numbers for oleo-stearine and lard 
stearine are near together, viz, for 35° .900 and .902, respectively. But 
for iodine numbers the difference is very great, [n the three samples 
of oleo-stearine examined the mean iodine number is 20.73 per cent. In 
the two samples of lard stearine analyzed it is 17.02 per cent. The 
mean number for cottoc oils is 109.02 per cent., for lard. C>'2.is per cent., 
and for prime steam lard, 62.86 per rent. In a mixture we may find all 
of those ingredients, and therefore the iodine number of such a mixture 

may approximate thai <>t' a pure lard. 

When the iodine number of a supposed adulterated lard goes above 
*;."> per cent, there are grave reasons for suspecting an adulteration, with 
cotton oil, but a pure laid made from certain parts of the hog may show 
even a higher number. 

If the microscopic examination show the presence of oleo-stearine, 

and cotton oil be revealed by the silver or gold tests, the complexity of 

the problem t8 less confusing. The iodine number may then reveal the 

approximate quantities of the two adulterants present. 

For example: 

l .. parts of cotton oil nt l":» L63.5 
1. pari <>f qleo steal ine at 20 20.0 

2.5 parts i-:i.- r , 

I. pari — 73.4 per cent, 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 473 

Now. a mixed lard whose iodine equivalent is about 6-4 percent. (Ar- 
mour's) can not be made of any considerable quantity of the above mixt- 
ure and pure lard. It must contain a notable quantity of lard steal inc. 

For example : 

40 parts of cotton oil and oleo-stearine at 74—2960 
30 parts of lard at 62=1860 

30 parts of lard stearine at 47 = 141<» 

100 parts =6230 

The theoretical iodine number of such a compound lard is therefore 
02.30 per cent. The above hypothetical example, in the light of the 
analyses made, shows approximately the composition of a compound 
lard whose iodine number is not above 63 per cent. 

In the Fairbank samples the mean iodine number is 85.31 percent. 
The microscope revealed also the presence of oleo-stearine in these 
samples. They were presumably composed of cotton oil, lard, and oleo- 
stearines, and perhaps some lard. As was >hown by the specific grav- 
ity they contained an excess of cotton oil. These mixtures may be rep- 
resented by the following proportions: 

10 parte ol< o-stearine at 20= 200 

■jr. parts lard stearine at l? = 1 1?.". 
«;:> parts cotton oil at 109= i 

inn parts 3460 

Theorel ical iodine Dumber = 84.60 per cent. 

No formulae can be given for computing the proportions of in_ 
dients from the quantity of Iodine absorbed, except in the tentative 
way indicated above, but the value of the iodine number, when thus 
studied with other quantitative data, is sufficiently illustrated. 

(G) By calculation from the refractive index. -*&oxnc valuable infor- 
mation concerning the quantitative composition of a mixed lard may be 
derived from a study of the refractive index. 

The mean refractive index at 25 of the samples of lard examined is 
1.4620 j water at the same temperature showing 1.3300; for. cotton oil 
the number is l. b'»7 1 : for oleo stearine, L.4582; for lard steariue, l . I 

The determination of a much larger number of samples of the stear- 
ines would !><• desirable before deciding <>n r permanent standard, but 
the above numbers will serve provisionally. 

p« 

Difference between lard and cotton oil i 

Difference between lard and oleo stearine 
Difference between laid ami laid itearine 

it thus appears that the addition <u* cotton <»il to a laid would i 

its refractive index, while the addition of the stearines would lower it. 



474 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Iii general it appears that two parts of stearine would neutralize the 
effect of one part of cotton oil. .V mixture of 1.5 parts of cotton oil and 
1 part of mixed stearines would have the following theroretical index: 

1.5 parts cotton oil at 1.4674 =2.2011 
1 part stearines at 1.45S8 =1.4588 



2.5 parts =3.6599 

1 part =1.4640 

For a lard adulterated with the above-mixed adulterant we may use 
the following formulae : 

Let r=observed index at 25° 
a = index at 25° of lard. 
fr=index at 25° of cotton oil. 
c=index at 25° of stearine. 

1.5& + G' 



index at 25° of the mixed cotton oil and stearine. 
x= 

Then 



2.5 

x= per cent, of adulteration. 



X _1W (i 



1.5 b+c 
2.5 



(i. 



As an illustration of this formula take the mean numbers obtained 
in the tables of samples for lard, cotton oil, stearines, and Armour's 
mixtures : 

Mean index of Armour's samples r=1.4634 
Mean index of pare lards a=1.4620 

Mean index of cotton oils 6=1.4674 

.Mean index of stearines e=l.r> sv > 

Value of L '^ 5 +° =1.4640 

2.0 
'l'h, -n a?=.14-r-.0020=70 percent. 

According to this formula Armour's samples would have only 30 pel 

cent of pure lard, a result which is contradicted by other data. lam 
inclined to believe thai the examination of a larger number of samples 

Of Stearine may Show a higher index and thus bring the results obtained 

by the application of the above formula more into harmony with the 
other data. 

Theindei for the Pairbank samples, 1.4651, shows that in these mixt- 
ures cotton oil has been used in greater proportions than indicated 

above, thus corroborating the results obtained by the other methods <■ 
analysis. Judged 1>.\ the index of refraction alone, on the assumption 

that this index for the stearines is not much di Helen I from that of lard, 






LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS 475 

the composition of a mixed lard is probably as truly indicated as by 
any other single method. 

(7) By determination of product formed by chloride of sulphur. — Warren, 
in the articles already cited, has obtained some interesting results, and 
our own work has shown that much may be expected of a careful study 
of this process. Lack of time has prevented a fall investigation and 
this will be made subsequently. 

(8) Rise of temperature with sulphuric acid. — Valuable information re- 
lating to the composition of a mixed lard may be obtained by a study of 
rise of temperature of a given volume thereof when mixed with a definite 
quantity of strong sulphuric acid. The data obtained in our analyses 
are as follows: 

Rise of temperature with — n. _ 

Lard 41.5 

Cotton oil B5. I 

Oleo stearine 

Lard stearine :;?. 7 

Mean rise of temperature with the stearines "J 1 .'. '.; 

When the microscope reveals oleo stearine we may take the last num- 
ber to represent the mean increment of temperature. For an adulter- 
ant composed of 1.5 parts of cotton oil and 1 part of stearine the mean 
rise of temperature would be G3°. 

The apparent composition of a mixed lard on the above character of 
the adulterant would be illustrated by the following formula : 

Let f=obseryed rise of temperature for sample. 

a— rise of temperature for lard. 

6— rise of temperature for cotton oil. 

o=rise of temperature for stearine. 

1 5 b-V-c 
" J =theoretical rise of temperature for the adulterant. 

_.• ) 

£=percentage of adulteration. 



Then 



100 (*— a] 



1.5 h + c 

■;.:, ~" 

This formula applied to the mean rise <»l" tempei at lire observed in 
Armour's samples gives the following result: 

' 23.3 per cent. 

Applied to Fairbanks simples it shows an adulteration of 76.3 per 
cent. 

9. Calculation from the melting poinL~ The melting point ^\' a fat is 
often of great value in helping to a correct understanding of its oompo- 

sition, but little reliance can !»»• pi e-ed on it tbr quantitative purposes. 



476 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



The different glvcerides when mix< d do not have a melting point which 
corresponds to the one theoretically calculated. For this reason equal 
mixtures of cotton seed oil and lard, instead of having a melting point of 
about 20°, really melt only at a much higher temperature. While, 
therefore, the determination of the melting point of a compound lard 
should not be omitted, it does not afford a basis for any reliable estima- 
tion of a quantitative nature. 

10. Heating with nitric acid and albumen. — The coloration produced 
by heating the fat or oil under examination with nitric acid and albu- 
men has also been proposed as a quantitative test. Although J have 
not tried this method quantitatively, I am of the opinion that it will be 
found of no greater value than the other color reactions already noted. 

The Brulle test appears to be unaffected by free acid or rancidity . in 
which point it possesses an advantage over chloride of gold and in some 
cases over nitrate of silver. 

SUMMARY. 

From the methods already worked out as applied to the two classes 
of mixed lards examined the following general results are deducible, 
viz : 



Method of examination by— 


Sample from— 


Per cent, of 

adulteration. 

i 






70. 00 




do 


Kise of temperature 


do 

Fail kink & Co 

do 


100.00 








.... do 









The mean percentage of adulteration for the Armour Bam plea is 37.24. For tl 

it in «J2. 10. 



Fa rbank Ran pit ■ 



It is not unusual to omit the percentage of lard Btearine used in 
accounts given by manufacturers of the extent of adulteration. If we 
allow thai one-third of the total adulterant is laid etearine the perl 
centages of foreign fats in the Armour and Fairbank lards are 24.83 
and 61.40 respectively. 

In the foregoing discussion it Lias been assumed that the mean properj 
ties of a mixture of various glycol ides are proportional to the quantities 
of each present. In the case of the melting point, we know that tin's is 
not the case, and the consideration of the melting point therefore as a 
factor in quantitative determinations has been omitted. It may he tine 
that other properties arc also unequally developed in a mixture, and 
this would add still another complication to the problem. 

In the present state of our knowledge t lie chemist is unable t«> express 
definitely tin- degree of adulteration which a sample of lard has suffered] 
Be can state with confidence whether or not a given sample is ad ni 



LARD AXD LARD ADULTERATIONS. 477 

terated, and in the comparison of two widely different sets of samples — 
such as were obtained from Armour & Co. and Fairbauk & Co. — he 
may safely say that one is adulterated to a greater degree than the other. 
Further than this the present state of our knowledge will nor permit 



RESULTS OF ANALYSES. 

The samples of lards and lard compounds, whose analyses follow, were 

furnished by different persons, each sample usually accompanied by an 

affidavit showing where ir was bought, name of sample, etc., or were 
purchased in open market by agents of the chemical division or ren- 
dered in the laboratory. 

The classification was made as follows : 

(1) Lards known or believed to be pure h#g grease. 

(2) Prime steam lards from Chicago Board of Trade. 

(3) Lards of miscellaneous origin, both pure and adulterated. 

(4) Cotton oils from different localities. 

(5) Crude cotton oils and foots. 

((>) Oleo, lard, and cotton-oil stearines. 

(7) Mixed lards from Armour & Co., Chicago, 111. 

(8) Mixed Lards from N". lv. Fairbauk & Co., Chicago, 111. 
(!)) Miscellaneous oils. 

Each sample is indicated by a number, and with each table is a list oi 
these numbers, with a full description of the name of the sample, and 
place or persou from whom obtained. 

In the foregoing pages the analytical data obtained have been rat her 
fully discussed, and only such explanatory items will be added here as 
may help to elucidate the tables. The amount of analytical work which 
lias been done, as will be seen, LS very large. While absolute accuracy 
has not been obtained, it is believed the data in general ma\ be accepted 
as reliable. 

Such an amount <>f work can only be accomplished by the united 
labors of several participators, and this, of course, magnifies the per- 
sonal error to a certain degr< 

Si MPLE OF IP! n> wits. 

Many of the samples were accompanied by affidavits, which it i> QOl 

necessary to reproduce in full.. Their general tenor may be -em from 

the four following 

o i X i . w Voi 

City and Con ii t;i of 

Carl Dreier, being duly sworn, says: Thai h<- in . c with V K. Fairbank A 

Co., of Chicago; thai ij is i h<' custom of the u d firm i<» keep n stock of their niim-.l 



478 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS 

lard on band at their manufactory in Chicago for sale to the domestic and foreign 
trade: that the accompanying package of refined lard in the original can marked 
•• II " was taken from the stock of the said firm on hand at the said manufactory, and 
is the Bame as that sold regularly hy the said firm in the domestic and foreign mar- 
kets as refined lard : that the said package was taken at random from the said stock 
without special selection, and that all of said stock is alike as to composition and 
quality as that usually and regularly sold in the domestic and foreign markets by the 
said iir-i and known as refined lard; that the said package was immediately fastened 
up, scaled, and marked "II" by this deponent, and that no ingredient or thing has 
been added to or extracted from the same; and deponent further says that the said 
package is a true, genuine, and fair sample of the refined lard as regularly made and 
sold by the said firm, and that it was not specially prepared for testing, analysis, or 
exhibition purposes, and that it is in every sense a genuine sample of refined lard. 

Carl Dreikr. 

Sworn to before me this 16th day of February, lbdd. 

Alfred Juntzth, 
Notary Public, New York County. 



[Affidavit to accompany Nos. 5530, 5551, and 5552.1 

I, Walter L. Hill, on oath affirm and declare that I purchased on the seventh day 
of February, A. D. 1888, in the city of Washington, D. C, in the open market, the 
following packages of pail lard and paid for the same the price sel against the re- 
spective items; that the names of the parties in whose places of business the same 
were pnrchased were as follows, to wit : 

One (1) three (3) pound pail of lard, marked "Jacob Sohaefer, A Co., Baltimore. 
Pure natural lard, bought of Henry W. Kem & Co., No. 12 Centre Market, Washing- 
ton, D. C, price thirty-live (35) cents." 

One(l) three (3) pound pail of lard, marked "Chas. (I. Kriel, cream leaf lard, 

Baltimore, price thirty (30) cents;" bought of .las. .Schneider. No. 589 Centre Market, 
Washington, D. C. 

One (L) three (3) pound pail of lard, marked "Armour 4 Co., pure refined family 
Lard, Chicago," bought of E. C. Ford A Son, No. 609 Centre Market, Washington, 
|). ('. ; price thirty-five (35) cents. 

And I. the said Hill, further on oath affirm and declaie, that 1 likewise purchased 
on the eighth day of February, A.. D. 1888, in the said oity of Washington, in the 

open market, the following package of pail lard and paid for the Bamo the price Bet 

against the said item, and thai the name of the part) in whose place of business the 

same was purchased i> as follows, to wit : 

One (1) five (5) pound pail of lard, marked "G. Cassaid A Son, best re lined lard, 

Baltimore," with a star, viz,, c bough! of Hume, Cleary A Co., No. B07 Penn- 
sylvania avenue, Washington, D. C. j price fifty-five (55) cents. 

Thai I took said samples ami delivered them t<> Professor S. P. Skarpless in the 
original packages, as purchased, and thai the same were do! in way tampered with 
by me. 

w. L. Hill. 

Cm of Washi mqt< >n, 

District of ( 'olumbia, m, 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this the 10th day of February, A. D. L888. 

Robert R. Bhbllabargbr, 

Votary Public, D. C. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 479 

[Affidavit to accompany Xoa. 5662-66.1 

I hereby certify that certain samples of lard, numbered two to six inclusive, and 
marked "From C. H. S. Mixer, Chicago, 2-8-88," were prime steam lard, and of 
the quality known as standard lard by the Board of Trade of the city of Chicago. 
Said samples were from five different lots of lard, arid were made by as many differ- 
ent packers, and the samples fairly represented the different lots from which they 
were taken. The said five samples of lard were drawn on the eighteenth day <>f Feb- 
ruary last, and were on the same day shipped per express and were addressed to 
"Prof. Sharpless, Riggs House, Washington, D. C." 

C. II. S. Mixer, 
Chief Inspector of Provision*, Chicago Board of Trade. 

Personally appeared C. II. S. Mixer, signer of the foregoing statement, who made 
sol« ii in oath to the truth of the same, this fifth *ay of March. 1 — . 

R. S. WORTHIXGTOX. 

Notary Public. 



[Affidavit to accompany Xo. 5G10. | 

State of Illinois, 

Cook County, ss : 
Geo. II. Webster, being first duly sworn, on oath deposes and Bays, that he is a 
member of the firm of Armour £ Co., doing business in the city of Chicago, Cook 
County, Illinois, ami that he makes this affidavit on behalf of himself and his co- 
partners in said firm ; that he has seen and knows the iivv pound tin of lard which is 
herewith submitted to Dr. II. W. Wiley, chemist of the Departmenf of Agriculture 
of the United states, for analysis, and that the same w;^ manufactured by the said 
inn of Armour & Co., in accordance with their regular formula for the manufacture 
of refined lard for foreign trade. 

('•\:n. H. Webster. 

Sworn and subscribed to before me this 11th day of February . I — . 

ClIARLES F. Langdon, 
Notary Public in and for Cook Co., Hie. 



480 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTEKAXTS. 



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LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 481 

Notes ox Table No. 17. 

This table includes the analyses of nineteen samples of lard, which 
both in pedigree and properties appear to be pure hog grease, taken 
from those parts of the animal usually devoted to lard-making. 

Under the head of miscellaneous lards, there are other samples which 
appear to be pure lard, but the evidence was uottn all cases sufficiently 
conclusive to warrant their incorporation in this table. 

Number <at<l description of samples in Tabic X<>. 17. 

Number. 

5.").")0. •• Pure Natural Lard," brand of Jacob C. Shafer vV Co. : purchased in Washing- 
ton. Affidavit of Walter L. Hill. 

■665. "Beat Refined Lard," brand of G. Cassard & Son, Baltimore, Md. ; purchased 
in Savannah, Ga. Affidavit of Isaac G. Haas. 

■566. " Leaf Lard," brand of Rohe ^v Bro., New York; purchased in Savannah. <ia. 
Affidavit of Isaac G. B 

1691. " Pure Leaf Lard," brand of John P. Squire ^V Co., Boston, Ma—. ; from manu- 
facturer. 

5")i)"J. Same as above. 

■693. Same as above. 

IfiOO. "Pure Unadulterated La rd," brand of 1". Whittaker & Sons, Saint Louis, Mo. 
Affidavit of \l. A. Hamilton. 

5G01. '• Pure Unadulterated Honest Refined Lard." brand and affidavit same as a hove. 

■608. "Besl Refined Lard," brand of G. Cassard A: Sons: purchashed in Washington. 
Affidavit of Walter L. Hill. 

I60 J . •• Pure Country Lard." rendered by L. Entriken, West Chester. Pa. 

|655. "Pure Leaf Lard," from Deerfoot Farm Company, Boston, Mass. Affidavit 
of Frank W. Beunet*. 

K56. •■' lioicc Leal" Lard." brand of Charles H. North A I on, Ma--.: pur- 

chased of manufacturer. Affidavit of Frank W. Bennett. 

1656. No brand, leaf laid, of Niles Brothers, Boston, Mass. Affidavit of Prank W. 
Bennett. 

■657. "Pure Leaf Lard," brand of Sperry d Barnes, New Haven, Conn. ; purchased 
in Boston, Mass. 

:»(.;•.-. Laid from head of bog, rendered in United States Department of Agriculture. 
1 ntest ine lard rendered in laboratory. 

r>T>74. Leaf lard, reudored in United states Department of Agriculture. 

.">•;;<;. Lard fro, ii pigs' feet, from David Wesson, Chicago, 111. 

1679. "Pure Natural Lard," brand of Jaoob C. Shafer & ('<>.; purchased from manu- 

faet 111 • I . 

.hi specific .ma\ it y 5655 resembles lard stearine. Pigs' feel lard, 5676. 
Should be considered apart, sim-c no lard of commerce ia ever made ex 
clusively of pigs' feet. It represents the other extreme of specific 
gravity. 

The highest melting point is shown by 5593 and the lowest by -^Td. 

The highest color with acids was shown by •>«*.:>(; and with silver ni- 
trate by 5673. 

Judged by density alone, 5655 and 5676 would have pronounced adul- 
terated, the former with stearine, the latter w ith cotton oil. The latter 
sample would also be looked mi rs suspected by reason of its high !<•- 

I d aerial order from page 120, pad tit • 

i;.;i<)_pt. -t <; 



482 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

tractive index. Both 5G70 and 5672 show iodine numbers which would 
lead the analyst to look for a high percentage of cotton oil. 

Leaving out these samples made from special parts of the animal, the 
mean iodine number for the other samples would be materially reduced. 

It appears that the true number for lards of commerce would be about 
CO. 

In addition to its low specific gravity No. 5655 is abnormal, both in 
the slight rise of temperature it gives with sulphuric acid and its low 
iodine number. In all three properties, viz, specific gravity, rise of 
temperature with sulphuric acid, and iodine number, it indicates the 
presence of lard stearine, or that it is made from some special part of 
the fat. 

Prime steam lard. Table Xo. 18. 
So. 

5629. Prime steam lard purchased in Saint Louis, Mo. Affidavit of R. A. Hamilton. 

56;J9. Prime lard, steam-rendered, from D. E. Fox, taken by Chicago inspector. Affi- 
davit of Carl Dreier. 

5640. Prime steam laid from D. E. Fox, taken by Chicago inspector. Affidavit of 
Carl Dreier. 

5041. Prime steam lard from D. E. Fox, taken by Chicago inspector. Affidavit of 
Carl Dreier. 

5642. Prime steam lard from D. E. Fox, taken by Chicago inspector. Affidavit of 
Carl Dreier. 

5650. Prime steam lard from John P. Squire &, Co., Boston, Mass. 

5662. Prime steam lard taken by Chicago inspector. Affidavit of C. II. S. Mixer. 

5663. Same as above. 

5664. Same as above. 

5665. Same as above. 
^666. Same as above. 



LARD AND LAUD ADULTEBATIOXS. 



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484 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Notes ox Table 18. 

As can be seen by the description of the samples, Table No. IS con- 
tains analyses of fairly good specimens of the prime steam lard of the 
Chicago market. 

The specific g/avities of the samples are very near together, differing 

in any case at most only .0014 from the mean. 

The variations in the melting point are more marked, and in Nos. 5663 
and otitic we notice results which are quite anomalous. In No. 5663 
the melting point and crystallizing point of the fat acids are compara- 
ble with the mean results, which leads to the suspicion of some inad- 
vertent error in determining the melting point of the glycerides. The 
mean refractive index is slightly higher than that for lards made in 
other ways. The iodine number is also higher than for pure lards of 
different origin, especially with the exceptions noted in table No. 18. 

When the rise of temperature with sulphuric acid, however, is con- 
sidered, a lower number is obtained than in No. 17. The numbers lor 
single samples show a close agreement with the exception of 5629, one 
of the two samples in the table not obtained in Chicago. 

A- a general observation it may be stated that the steam lards of 
commerce have a more constant composition than pure lards made in 
other ways and from more restricted portions of the animal. 

Steam lards have a distinctively strong odor which distinguishes them 
from lards rendered in open kettles at low temperatures and from se- 
lected portions of the fat. 

Cottonseed oil. 
No. 

:>:,:>:', Cotton oil, from I". Whittaker & Sons. Sainl Louis, Mo. 

5554. V.ilow cotton oil, from Naphey <v Co., Philadelphia, Pa, 

5555. White or refined cotton oil, same source as above. 

5615. Summer yellow, received from D. E. Fox. 

5616. Slimmer white, received from I>. 1.. Fox, 

5618. From Z. D. Oilman, Washington, 1>. C, narked olive Oil Sublime. 

&619. Cotton oil, same source as above. 

5635. Cotton oil, purchased in Boston, Mass Affidavit of Walter L. Hill. 

Cotton oil, purchased in Saint Louis, Mo. Affidavit of i>. n. Kennett. 
5645. Prime cotton oil, from N. K. Fairbank & Co., Chicago, III. Affidavit of Carl 

I Uriel . 

6647. i-i^lii yellow cotton oil, Maginnia oil Works, New Orleans, La. Affidavit of 
hi Madge. 

5648. Light yellow cotton oil, purchased from Union oil Company, New Orleans, I. a. 

Affidavit of Carson Madge. 

5649. Light yellow cotton oil, purchased from Delta oil Works, Ne* Orleans, I. a. 

Affldavil of < 'arson Madge. 
5661. Cotton oil. taken from car bj C, H. S. Mixer, in Chicago, III. Affidavit of o. 
II. s. Mixer. 
3 am met yellow cot ion oil, from Sou i hern Cotton Oil Trast. 
5664. Summer white cotton oil, Southern Cotton oil Trust. 
5685. Winter yellow cottou oil, Southern Cotton oil Trust. 

Winter white cotton oil, Southern CottOQ Oil Trust. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATION- 



485 



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486 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Notes on Table No. U>. 

The cotton oils examined are believed to represent very accurately 
the oils used in the adulteration of lards. The samples were mostly 
taken from large reservoirs and hence better represent a mean value 
than if derived from small quantities of the material. 

The specific gravity of the samples is remarkably uniform, the great- 
est variation from the mean being +.0011. 

The high melting and crystallizing points of the fat acids are remark- 
able characteristics when the low temperature at which cotton oil is a 
solid is taken into consideration. The figures show how independent 
these acids are of the glyceride in many of their physical properties. 

The high refractive index of cotton oil has already been noted. In 
No. 50(31 this index is far above the mean, while in No. 5619 it falls 
considerably below. With these exceptions there is a fair agreement 
among the indices of the remaining samples. 

The gioat rise of temperature shown by cotton oil in contact with sul- 
phuric acid is fully illustrated by the numbers in the tabic. These num- 
bers arc fairly concordant. The greatest departures from the mean are 
—0.3° and +3.5°. 

By the silver nitrate test the original samples were easily recognized 
as cotton oil, while with the same test applied to the five acids, the re- 
suits, as already indicated, were not so decisive. The probable reason 
for this has already been mentioned. 

In the samples marked "jelly" in all the tables the silver test would 
not work on account of a gelatinous precipitate, due doubtless to the 
formation of a salt in the samples, arising from the union of an organic 
acid with the silver. This organic acid was separated, but not in suffi- 
cient quantity to determine its properties. The high iodine numbei is 
another characteristic to be noted. Nos. 5649 and 5645 show the great- 
est departures from the mean. 

Slid/ ! 

So. 
■".'ii .'. Prime oleo-stearine, made and used by Armour & Co., Chicago, III. Affidavit 

of I leorge 1 1 , Webster. 
5613. Prime lard Btearine, made and used by Armour & Co., Ohicago, III. Affidavit 

of George 1 1. Webster. 
5626. Oleo-stearine from John Reardea A Sons, Boston, Mass. Affidavit of Walter L. 

iiiii. 
fellow cottonseed "il Btearine, brand of N. K. Pairbank A Co., Chicago, 111., 

from B. Riohards. 
5631. Cotton-seed Btearine obtained by X. l>. Oilman, from B. Riohards. 

5643. Prime lard stearine, from N. K. Pairbank d Co.; Chioago, III. Affidavit of Carl 

I >reier. 

5644. Oleo-stearine, from N. K. Pairbank a Co., Chicago, III. Affidavit of Carl 

I )reier, 
5652. Dead hog stearine, from John P. Sojuiro, Boston, M 
5675. Sample from David Wesson, Bnpposed to be cottonseed oil Btearine. 
.'.(Ho. Ste trine from white col bonseed oil, from Soul hern ( '<>i ton < >il Trust. 
5681. Stearine from yellow cottonseed oil, from Southern Cotton ( >il Trust. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



487 



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488 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

No n:s on Table No. 20. 

The number of stearines examined is not large enough to fix ;i standard 
of comparison. Those of interest in the study of mixed lard are the 
prime lard and oleo- stearines. The cotton-oil stearines arc not very 
extensively used in lard adulterations. The dead hog-grease stearines 
are never used for this purpose. 

The specific gravity of the oleo-stearines is slightly below that of the 
prime lard stearine samples, and both are less than the specific gravity of 
pure lard. The melting' point of both stearines is above that of lard. 
In the column containing the refractive indices those marked with an 
asterisk are of samples of different origin from the remainder of the 
table, but they are believed to be good representative samples. The 
mean index, however, should be determined from a much larger number 
of samples.* It will doubtless be found to be somewhat lower than the 
index of pure lards taken at the same temperature. 

The rise of temperature on mixing with sulphuric acid is much less in 
the case of the stearines than with pure lard, showing that this pheno- 
menon is chiefly characteristic of oleine. The stearines of cotton oil, 
however, show an increase of temperature comparable with that of 
the original oil, and lard stearine a much greater increase than oleo. 

The low iodine equivalent of oleo-stearine has already been noticed 
and is strikingly shown by the data in the table. The cotton-oil stearines 
show a marked decrease from the numbers obtained for the oil itself. 

Armour's lards. 
No. 

:. 52. Pore refined family lard, Washington, D. C. Affidavit of W. L. Hill. 

6557. Kettle refined lard. Mobile, Ala. Affidavit of F. II. MoLarney. 

.").".:.'.». Pnre refined family lard, Maoon, Ga. Affidavit of T. Skelton Jones. 

6561. Choice refined family lard, Maoon, Ga. Affidavit of T. Skelton Jones. 

5562. Choice refined family lard, Kansas City, Mo. Affidavit of T. Skelton Jones. 

5564. Pure refined family lard, Savannah, Ga. Affidavit of [saac <;. FTaas. 

5572. Choice family lard. S.imt Louis, Mo. 

5581. Choice family lard. Kansas City, Mo. Affidavit of E. K. Converse. 

5584 Pure refined family lard. New Orleans, La. Affidavit of K. K. Converse. 

5595. Pnre refined family lard, Philadelphia, Pa. Affidavit ^ W. L. Hill. 

5610. Pare refined family laid. Affidavit of George H. Webster. 

5611. Pure refined family lard. Affidavit of George II. Webster. 

5653. Superior compound lard, Boston, Mass. Affidavit of Frank W. Bennett* 

The analytical data show that oleine has a higher refraetii e index than stearine 

or palmit inc. 






LARD AND LAUD ADULTERATIONS. 



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490 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Notes <»x Table 21. 

The samples analyzed show that the compound lards manufactured by 

Armour & Co., of Chicago, have nearly a uniform constitution. The spe- 
cific gravities of the various samples differ only slightly from the mean. 
The maximum difference is in Xo. 5572, viz, — .0015, and the maximum 
-f difference in Xo. 5611, viz, .0008. The melting points arc also re 
markably constant, the two maximum variations of a positive and neg- 
ative sign being + 2.7°, in Xo. 5557 and — 1.7° in Xos. 5504 and 5595. 
The same agreement is also noticed in the melting and crystallizing 
points of the fat acids. The refractive index in most cases is only 
slightly above that of pure lard, showing only a small addition of cot- 
ton oil, or a correction of the index thereof by a corresponding addition 
of a stearine with low index. 

The rise of temperature with sulphuric acid shows only notable 
variations in Nos. 55G1 and 5584. 

In the latter of these the iodine number is correspondingly increased, 
but not so in the former. This is only another of the numerous illus- 
trations of the analytical perplexities encountered in the study of mixed 
glycerides. 

The reactions with silver nitrate reveal very well, in almost every 
instance, the presence of cotton oil, but in some cases the phenomena of 
reduction of silver are not sufficiently developed to distinguish the 
samples from lard containing enough of impurity other than cotton oil to 
give a color with silver nitrate. The silver test applied to the free 
acids did not afford satisfactory results; a fact which has already been 
noted, and its possible explanation given. 

In the iodine numbers, those obtained for Nos. 5552,5584, and 5593 
arc much above the menu, while in one case. No. .V>7l\ the percentage 
of iodine absorbed, viz, of 54.11, would indicate the admixture of a 
larger quantity than usual of oleo-stearine. 



I 'ai>- bank's lard. 

Prime refined family lard, purchased in Mobile, Ala. Affidavit <>t F. II- Mo] 
Larney. 
5561. Prime refined family Lard, purchased in Macon, Ga Affidavit of T, Skeltoa 

.1(1! I 

5663. Choice refined familj lard, purchased in Savannah Ga, Affidavit of Isaac G| 

Haas. 
r.;.<;7. Prime refined family lard, purohased in Dallas, Tex. Affidavit of Thomas l\ 
McEnnis. 
Prime refined family lard, purchased In Saint Louis, Mo, 
Prime refined family Lard, purchased In Sainl Louis, Mo. 
Prime refined family Lard, purchased In Atlanta, Ga, 
5576. Prime refined family lard, purohased in New Orleans, La. Affidavit <>r E. K, 

( 'oil' 

Prime refined Leaf-lard, purohased In Norfolk, Va. Affidavit of W. B. ivar- 
man. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 491 

§59G. Prime refined family lard, purchased in Philadelphia, Pa. Affidavit of \Y. L. 

Hill. 
5CU. No brand; original small package " Y." Affidavit of William T. Wells. 
1635. No brand; original large package " Z." Affidavit of William T. Wells. 
■636. " X '" prime refined family lard, purchased in New York. Affidavit of William 

T. Wells. 
5037. '"' XX " prime refined family lard, purchased in New York. Affidavit of William 

T. Wells. 
U S" Cuba export refined lard, purchased in New York. Affidavit of William 

T. Wells. 
564G. Prime refined family lard, from D. E. Fox. Affidavit of Carl Dreier. 
5651. Compound lard purchased in Boston, Mass. Affidavit of Frank W. Bennett. 






492 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



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X 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS 493 

Notes on Table No. 22. 

This table presents the results of an interesting study of compound 
lards in which the natural hog grease is reduced to a minimum'. 

Indeed it appears from the general results in some of the samp 
that they may not have any lard in them at all, but lard stearine in 
stead. The high specific gravity, low inciting point, high refractive 
index, great rise of temperature with sulphuric acid, an 1 high iodine 
number, all point to samples containing a maximum quantity of cotton 
oil or cotton-o:l stearine. 

The chief variations from the mean of the specific gravity are shown 
in Nos. 5569 and 5635. In both eases the iodine numbers conform to 
Be indications of the density. 

In one case (Xo.5573j the melting point is very low, while the highest 
meltinj point is (563S) a compound lard made for the Cuban trade, and 
having, therefore, presumably a large content of oleo-stearine, and in 
which we might expect tin' cotton oil to be present as a stearine also. 

The refractive indices reveal unmistakably the presence of a body 
wiili a higher index than pure .laid, and the high temperatures reached 
with sulphuric acid are a farther evidence that this BUDStancc 
3il. The ioline numbers furnish the resl of the evidence, showing the 

:'n percentage of this Bubstance present in the mixture. 

rhe results shown in this table are much more satisfactory than tie 
led in the preceding one. It is quite evident that some samples 
I Armour's lards might pass as pure li og grease, when the tniscroa 
Fails to reveal crysl ds of beef fat, while none of the Pairbank samples 
pould he thus mistaken. 

Misccllam <>us Lards. 

)5.M . Mir. mi Leaf Lard," brand of Charles ('. Kriel; purchased in Washington, l>. 
C. Affidavit ol Walter I.. Hill. 

Lard, ,; brand of Ka king Company, Kansas City, 

M o. : purchased id Mobile, Ala. Affidavit of P. II. M I. irney. 
■60. "Choice Refined Family Lard," brand < City, Mo.; 

purchased in Macon, Ga. Affidavit of T. a ton Jones. 
"Choice Family Lard "' brand <>r fowler Brol hers, Chicago, III. : purchased iu 
tit Louis, Mo. 
■71. "Cream L . : Lard,'' brand of Charles Q. Kriel, Baltim M .: pnrchas 
a Louis, Mo. 

• a," brand of Anglo- Americai Company, Oi 

i r chased in At! 
'Choice Family Laid.*' brand of G Mo. ; purch 

in 

s. "Choice Refined Familj Lard," brand of Allen 
City, M«>. : purchased in Nen < >i . 

I," brand 
\| I I K. Conv* 

nod Tim >rand, Mi 

.• purchased in New Orleans, La of 1 K.4 



494 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

5585. '• Anchor Lard," brand of A. H. Worthmao & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. : purchased 

in Norfolk, Va. Affidavit of C. A. Woodard and W. B. Pearman. 

5587. "A No. I Refined Lard," brand of Swift & Co., Chicago, 111.; purchased in 

Norfolk, Va. Affidavit ofC. A. Woodard and W. B. Pearman. 

5588. •• Pnre Refined Laid," brand of Chicago Packing and Provision Company : pur- 

chased in Norfolk, Ya. Affidavit of C. A. Woodard and W. B. Peariuan. 
•'Kettle-Rendered Leaf Lard," brand of Rohe & Bros., New York ; purchased 

in Norfolk. Va. Affidavit of C. A. Woodard and W. B. Pearman. 
5')90. "Choice Family Lard,"' purchased in Boston. 
5594. Brand: "Pure Family Lard," Halstead & Co., New York. Affidavit of W. L. 

Hill. 

5597. Brand: "(Marca Castellana) Mantica pura Calla Forsyth," New York. Affida- 

vit of W. L. Hill. 

5598. Brand: "Choice Refined Family Lard," Allcutt Packing Company, Kansas 

City, Mo. ; purchased in Dallas, Tex. Affidavit of Thomas 1". MoEnnis. 

5599. "Choice Family Lard," brand of Charles F. Tietjen, from Naphy &. Co., Phila- 

delphia. 
5602. Adulterated Refined Lard, purchased in Saint Louis, Mo. Affidavit of R. A. 

Hamilton. 
56:52. Received from D. E. Fox, from Charles F. Tietjen, for Central Lard Company, 

New York. Affidavit of Charles F. Tietjen. 
5633. •• Marked B, same as A," from D. E. Fox. 

5(>o7. Kettle-rendered, backs and leaf lard, from Plumb & Winter, Bridgeport, Conn. 
56G8. Kettle-rendered, backs aud leaf lard, from F. A. Bartran & Co., Bridgeport, 

Conn. 
5669. Kettle-rendered, intestinal and head lard, from F. A. Bartran & Co., Bridgeport, 

Conn. 






LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS 



495 



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LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 407 

Notes to Tables Nob. 23, 24, and 2r>. 

In Table 23 are included all the lards of a miscellaneous origin 
which Lave been examined by us, and which could not be properly 
classified under any of the preceding beads. Of these quite a number 
Report themselves with, re-agents as pure bog grease, while others are 
without doubt adulterated. Of those wbicb appear pure I will mention 
Nos. 5551, 50G7, and 5GG9. 

The microscope revealed the presence of beef fat iu most of the other 
Samples, while other tests confirmed the presence of adulterants. 

In Table 24 are collected tbe data obtained by the analyses of crude 
cotton oils and foots or tank settlings. 

Nos. £G(KJ and 5G01 were furnished as pure cotton oils, but the analy- 
ses showed that they were heavily adulterated. These are the only in- 
stances in which crude or refined cotton oils were found to be adulter- 
ated. The nature of the adulterant was not determined. 

Table No. 25 contains the analyses of miscellaneous oils, and espe- 
cially of dead-hog grease. 

The low specific gravity of the lard oil (Xo. 5021) appears anomalous, 
since it should be higher than pure lard. Further investigations will 
determine the normal density of lard oil at any given temperature. 
Pea-nut oil (No. 5622) has practically the same specific gravity as cotton 
oil; while olive and rape seed oils have densities slightly above \m re 
ard. Dead-hog lard differs from the pure variety chiefly in its refract 
ive index and the quantity of free acid it contains. 

('rude (utton oil* and foots. 
No. 

B570. Cottonseed foots, obtained from Henry Bayers d Co., Saint Louis, Mo. 
I5b2. Crnde cotton oil, purohasad in New Orlean , La. 
1683. ('<>t ton-oil loots, purchased in New Orleans, La. 

1603. Summer white cotton oil, from Francis Whittaker & nint Louis, Mo. 

Affidavit of R. A. Hamilton. 

1604. fellow cotton oil : source and affidavit as al) 

■605. Crude cotton oil ; source and affidavit same as above. 

KM. Crude cotton oil j received from D. E. I 

5G8'J. Crude cotton oil ; from Southern Cotton Oil Trust. 

Crude cotton oil, from Brinkley, Ark., obtained from David Wesson, Chit 
111. 

ton oil, from Jackson, Tenn.] obtained from David Wesson, Co 
in. 
17.;i!)_ 1( t. i 7 



498 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 









[odine 

ab- 
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33.115 

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LAUD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 

Miscellaneous oils. 
No. 

5017. Marked "Olive Oil Sublime," from Z. D. Oilman, Washington, D. C. 

1620. Rape-seed oil, from Z. D. Oilman. 

5621. Lard oil, from Z. D. Oilman. 

5622. Pea-nut oil, from Z. D. Gil man. 

5623. Labeled "Hughes's Extra Superfine Italian Lncca Olive Oil; purchased from Al- 

fred E. Hughes, Boston, Mass. Affidavit of Walter L. Hill. 
5)21. Olive oil, purchased from Wm. Underwood & Co., Boston, Mass. Affidavit of 

Walter L. Hill. 
■627. Olive oil from Alden Speare's Sons & Co.. Boston. Maes. Affidavit of Walter L. 

Hill. 
■651. " Dead-hog grease," from John P. Squire &. Co., Boston, Mass. 
•659. " Dead-hog grease," from East Saint Louis Rendering Company. East Saint 

Louis, 111. Affidavit of R. A. Hamilton. 
1660. Dead-hog grease, with 10 per cent, of oleo-steariue added, from East Saint Louis 

Rendering Company, East Saint Louis, III. Affidavit ;>i'E. A. Hamilton. 

5670. Dead-hog grease from East Saint Louis. 

5671. Dead-animal grease from East Saint Louis. 

56S'J. Prime lard oil from David Wesson, Fairhank & Co., Chicago, 111. 



500 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



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S o» 53 



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LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 



iOI 



ABSTRACTS OF METHODS USED IN LAUD ANALYSIS, WITH 
THEREOF, RECENTLY USED BY ANALYSTS. 



RES! LTS 



Dr. Sbippen Wallace* has made a study of the adulteration of lard. 
His conclusions are as follows: 

In all samples of suspected lard, if one will follow the method here given, ho can 
not fail to meet with correct and proper results. 

(1) Iliibl's method, which will indicate either adulteration with tallow alone or 
cotton-seed oil alone, or indicate pure lard. 

(2) Use Bechi's test, as described, which will p rove the presence or absence of < >•[ 
tonseed oil. 

(3) Use the sulphuric-acid test as a further confirmation. 

By these last two, if Iliibl's method should yield a figure which would classify the 
suspected lard as pure, one can readily confirm or disprove it, while if Iliibl's should 
indicate cottonseed oil, they would make the proof complete. Lard steal ine 3 ields 
figures, by Hubl's method, within the range of pure lard, and while some manufact- 
urers make use of this article in the manufacture of summer lard, yet it is not an 
adulteration in the same sense that cottonseed oil and tallow are. I have nor men- 
tioned other claimed adulterants of lard, as they are easy of detection : water we 
sometimes find, one sample I examined containing 11.80 per cent. When this is found 
it is either caused by carelessness in the manufacture, or is intentional, as it can 
readily bo guarded against. 

The percentages of iodine absorbed by sixteen samples of pure and 
adulterated lard as found by Dr. Wallace are given in tbe following 

table : 



No. 


Puro. 


Adulter- 
ated. 


No. 


Pore. 


Adulter- 
ated. 


i 


• 






■ 


1 


57. 




y 


61.0 


70.2 








in 












11 






1 






12 






6 














81.7 




11 




70.7 


" 






IS 










C8.G 









NITRATE OF BILVEB REACTION WITH COTTON OIL. 

Biziot criticises tin* report of the Italian commission which recom- 
Bended Bechi's tesl for detecting cotton oil. 

According to Bizio pare olive oil sometimes produces redaction of 
silver even when the re agenl is slightly acidified with nitric acid. On 
pe other hand, some samples of cotton oil fail to prodnce the reduction. 
Bizio did not take the same care to identity hia samples that was used 
by the commission, and bis criticism will n<»t impair the value of the 
large experience which has shown the practical reliability of the silver 
test in the detection of cotton oil, 



' Report of the Dairy Commissioner of th< 1--; p l< 

tch.,,1. Central Wait. Jane 23, 1888, p 



502 FOODS AM) FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

CHLORIDE ()F GOLD AS A TEST FOB COTTON OIL. 

Elirschsohn • has recommended the use of aureus chloride for the de- 
tection of cotton oil. The reagent is used as follows : 

Dissolve one gram of gold chloride in 2()()ce of chloroform. To 3 to 
5cc of the oil add (5 to 10 xlrops of the reagent and heat for twenty 
minutes. Cotton oil will give a beautiful red color. . 

David Wesson f finds that free fatty acids interfere with the delicacy 
of the reaction, and also rancid lard. 

Free acids and rancid lard, on the other hand, do not affect the proc- 
ess of Brulle. 

Moerk ;|; has also reported results of this test. 

I have tried the reaction of Hirschsohn, and found the purple color 
produced quite characteristic j but even pure lards give a trace of color, 
which must not be confounded with the deep coloration produced by 
cotton oil. 

l:IM LLjVs AIF/niOD OF DETECTING ADULTERATIONS IN OLIVE OIL.§ 

The United States consul (Mr. Mason) at Marseilles writes as follows: 
Southern France has of late years suffered seriously from the adul- 
ter;! t ion, or rather Ihc artificial fabrication, of her two principal agri- 
cultural products, wine and olive oil. During the recent season of 
scanty vintages there has grown up in this district an immense manu- 
facture of "piquettes" or raisin wines, which are made by soaking in 
water, until fermentation takes place, the cheap dried grapes which are 
imported in such quantifies from the Grecian Archipelago and Turkey. 
These substitutes have so far replaced the real but more costly French 
wines that now — since the replanted vineyards begin to yield more 
abundantly — the genuine ordinary wines command only prices which 
hardly repay the cost of culture. The consumption of vinous beverages 
among the Laboring classes has not diminished, but the cheaper substi- 
tute has crowded out the real article, and in behalf of the agricultural 
class it is proposed to remedy this unnatural difficulty by putting a 
beavy import duty upon dried grapes from the Levant. 

With olive oil the case is similar, but even worse. Only a small por- 
tion of Prance is adapted to olive culture, the entire available district 
being a strip of dry country less than 20 miles wide along the Mediter- 
ranean coast. The t ice is of slow growth, and is, moreover, lx'set by 

numerous insects and diseases, which, in addition to unfavorable phases 
of weather, render the yearly olive crop more or Less uncertain. Any 

serious reduction in the annual consumption of olive oil is suflicient to 



* Pharmaceutishe Zeitschrifl fllr Ru sal and, 1888, p. 721, .-in. I American Journal of 
Pharmacy, January . I B89, p. 2 

• Letter February 16, 188 >. 

American Journal of Pbarma< .. February, 1830, j». <*.:». 
'i Lie Grocor and Oil Trade Hi \ I i bruan 2. 1889. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. . f)03 

reduce its market value below the point of profitable culture. This 
lias been done by the now nearly universal practice of adulterating or 

diluting the olive oils of Nice and Provence with various seed oils, viz, 
sesame, peanut, poppy-seed, camomile, and especially cottonseed, which 
last, by reason of its cheapness, palatable flavor, and difficulty of de- 
tection, has of recent years nearly supplanted all the others as an 
adulterating material. The rank, low-priced olive oils from southern 
Italy (Bari), Algeria, and Tunis have been brought here in vast quan- 
tities, diluted with cotton or sesame, and been consumed and exported 
wholesale in place of the fine, delicate, high-grade oils of the Var and 
Bouches-du-Rhoue, which have thus been nearly elbowed out of the 
market. This has so reduced the value of olive oil in southern Prance 
that the Government has set itself seriously to the task of providing 
a remedy. The first step was to discover some method of detecting 
such adulterations which should be not only exact in its results but 
sufficiently simple to be practicable for farmers, dealers, and ordinary 
consumers. It was stated in a report which was made from this con 
sulate in February. 1888, that no such process was then known. As 
late as .May 17 last a meeting of the Scientific and Industrial Society of 
Marseilles was addressed by Mr. Ernest Millian, an accomplished ana- 
lytical chemist, who reviewed elaborately all of the known processes 
ami admitted that none of them were sufficiently delicate and exact to 
detect an adulteration of less than 10 per cent. The "Cailletel n proc 
ess, which consists in treating the oil with a mixture of sulphuric and 
nitric acids, had been hitherto generally employed, but this was de- 
clared by Mi'. Millian untrustworthy unless the degree of adulteration 
exceeded HO per cent. 

The u liechi" process, now used bj the Italian Government, will de- 
tect an admixture of l.") per cent, of cottonseed oil. provided the sample 

analyzed contains no glycerine, formic acid, or free fatty a-ids, any 
one of which, even in minute quantity, IS sufficient to mask the chemi- 
cal reaction upon which the process of Bignor Bechi depends. Mr. 

Millian then described a new method, invented by himself, which con 

lists in treating with heat the saponified products of the oil in alcoholic 

solution with nitrate of silver. This, however, is a process tor the 
laboratory of the accomplished chemist, and i^ not adapted to genera] 

i Inc. The same is true of I he •• Leva Hois " process. \\ hicli baS b< < 'i USi d 

by experts in cases of real importance with more or less questionable 

results, the analysis in one notable instance having given the same ic 

suit from ;i sample of pure olive oil. and another which was Known to 
contain LM) per cent, of cotton Sit'i\. 

Finally, as it would seem, the Long songhl for process has been dia 

covered by Mr. Krulle, chemist of the Agronomic Station at Nice, B - 
discovery was announced to tin' Acidem\ of Sciences in Apl il Ia>t. and 

has been since subjected to an elaborate series <>f lests and ezperi 
incuts by a commission specially appointed for the purpose bj tin 



504 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ricultural Society of the Alpes Maritimes. Mr. Urulle began upon the 
known principle that vegetable oils, when oxidized by the application 

of certain acids, assume different sbades of color. lie then hit upon 
the use of albumen to fix and accentuate these delicate gradations of 
tint. The report of the commission has recently been published, and 
gives the process of Mr. Brulle such complete and unqualified indorse- 
ment, both for its simplicity and the exactness of its results, that the 
subject assumes a practical importance not only to the countries which 
produce olive oils, but to those which, like our own, import them as 
costly luxuries for general consumption. In its series of experiments 
at Nice the commission first applied the process of Mr. Brulle to six 
classes of samples, viz, first, to pure olive oil, then to the same oil with 
an added admixture of 5, 10, 20, and 50 per cent., respectively, of cotton- 
seed oil, and finally to the pure cottonseed oil itself. When the result 
had been established*, by repeated experiments with each grade of sam- 
ples a facsimile of the tint produced by eacli successive degree of adul- 
teration was prepared by dissolving certain pigments in stated quanti- 
ties of water. Thus the process and a standard system of proofs were 
put within reach of any person having a good eye for color and a Blight 
familiarity with chemical manipulations. 

THE NEW PROCESS. 

The process of Mr. Brulle is as follows : Put into a test-tube 1 j grains* 
of pure albumen (this should be gently heated in the flame of an alcohol 
lamp to expel any remaining moisture in the albumen which might 
otherwise modify the exactness of the result), then add 3 cubic centi- 
meters of nitric acid and 10 cubic centimeters of the oil to be tested (the 
quantity of each ingredient used is, of course, immaterial, provided the. 
above relative proportions are maintained; a test-tube graduated me- 
trically is the most convenient Cor the purpose); the mouth of the tube 
is then closed with a cork to prevent the boiling over of the liquid dur- 
ing ebullition, but pierced witli a small orifice to permit the escape of 

vapor, which would otherwise explode the tube, 'flic materials are 

mixed by shaking, but the nitric acid quickly settles to the bottom. 

Now warm gently in the lamp the part of the tube containing the oil, 

then apply the flame to the underlying stratum of acid. A fierce ebul. 

lition soon ensues, and when this is at its height plunge the lube into 
ice water sufficiently cold to chill the contents to 4° C, or its equiva- 
lent 40° P. During the cooling process there is developed an oleagin- 
ous precipitate, ranging iii color from pale yellow to reddisli brown, 
accord in;;- to the proportion of cottonoil contained in the tested sample. 
The experiment requires only the simple apparatus above mentioned, 

and occupies only four or five minutes. 

The findings of the commission at Nice are tabulated in its official 

• 50 in-. 



LARD ANT) LARD ADULTERATIONS. 

report as follows, the standard tint in each grade being produced by 
dissolving the stated number of units of each pigment named in 100 

units of water. For this purpose ordinary dry-cake water colors are 
most convenient : 

(1) Pure olive oil yields a precipitate tinged like 5 units of Naples 
yellow dissolved in 100 units of water. 

(2) Olive oil containing 5 per cent, of cotton oil yields the tint of 5 
units Naples yellow and 5 units of dark chrome yellow in 100 units of 
water. 

(3) Olive oil containing 10 per cent, cotton seed yields a tint equal to 
20 units Naples yellow, (>.\ units chrome yellow, and 1 unit Chinese ver- 
milion in 100 units of water. 

(1) Olive oil containing 20 per cent, cotton seed yields a tint equal t<> 
Gi units Naples yellow. G units chrome yellow, and 1.] units Chinese 
vermilion similarly dissolved. 

(5) Olive oil with 50 per cent, cotton oil yields a tint equal to 5 units 
Naples yellow. 5 units chrome yellow, and 5 units of vermilion. 

(0) Pure cotton (til yields a precipitate having the color of 3 J units 
chrome yellow, L0 units of vermilion, 1 unit of burnt sienna, and 1 of 
natural sepia in 100 units of water. 

Other seed oils, including sesame, camomile, peanut, and poppy seed, 
give a precisely similar series of tints in proportion to the degree of their 
admixture with olive oil. except that the colors are more inclined to the 

reddish shade which would be produced by covering the corresponding 

cotton-seed tint with a thin wash of carmine. These gradations of color 
are most marked when the liquid in the tube 18 at about the Bti 
temperature, M) P. As the precipitate is further chilled to the freezing 
point the colors lade and lose their individuality. Such is the system 

which is now expected will enable purchasers and consumers of olive 
oil in this country to detect the adulterations, which have become BO 

general that very few brands or lirm Dames are any longer a guaranty 
of purity. When it is remembered that more than 2,000,000 gallons 
of cotton-seed oil are exported from the United states to Marseilles 

in a single year, and that more than hall' of this vast quantity is used 
for adulterating Olive Oils, a large part of which arc re imported to the 

United States through a 30 per cent. duty, the importance of some new 
and better means of controlling the integrity of t his trade Will be appa 

rent. Some time ago L ,000 tierces of American laid weie stopped at 
the wharf in Marseilles, and the consignees subjected to a costlj pro- 
cess, which is not yet terminated, because the l.ird was found upon 

analysis bj the customs officers to contain in per cent, of cottonseed 

oil. This seizure was based upon the fact that, while lard is entitled 
to entry duty free, cottonseed oil beats .1 dul\ of franco per LOO Kilo. 
grams, and this adulterat ion of a tree ai I iele w it li a dut iabl< held 

to be fraudulent The least that can happen to the shippers in this i 

will be that the\ must pay the dnt\ on 1<>(> tierces Of Cottonseed oil and 



506 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

the expenses of the process, besides the loss which the consignee suffers 
from the delay. Might not this rigid scrutiny be equally well applied 
to some of the adulterated and falsified foreign products which are 
landed at American ports? 

It is not within the scope of* this report to consider whether either 
lard or olive oil, when adulterated with cottonseed, is necessarily un- 
wholesome. The vital fact is that in paying from 40 to 50 cents per 
kilogram and 80 per cent, duty on American cottonseed as olive oil, the 
people of the United States are submitting to a wholesale fraud, the 
proportions of which are increasing year by year. 

The interest of both the United States and France will be subserved 
when the reckless tampering with the integrity of commerce is sys- 
tematically suppressed. As long as our people will accept and pay for 
adulterated oils they will continue to flood and dominate the market. 
The remedy must be applied at our ports of entry. 

Mr. David Wesson* makes the following comments in regard to 
r.rulle's and other methods of testing for cotton seed oil: 

"We have worked some with the chloride of gold test and and it will 
give a reduction with cottonseed oil, free fatty acids, and old rancid 
lard. It gives no reduction with pure fresh lard containing less than 1 
per cent, of free acid. 

"We find the Brulle' test is unaffected by free acid or rancidity. We 
have tried the Bechi test (m some highly oxydized cotton oil and find 
it gives no reduction whatever; while with lard oil made from old lard 
considerable reduction can be obtained/' 

COCOA-NUT OIL AS AN ADULTERANT OF LARD. 

It is probable that in this country lard is never adulterated with CO- 
ooa nut oil for commercial purpose's. Allenf speaks of the use of cocoa- 
urn oil as an adulterant of lard. In "The Analyst," October, L888, 
page 89, lie s;i\ s he is unable to trace the authority on which the state- 
ment was made. He has, however, in his own experience found one 
sample of lard which was adulterated with cocoa-nut oil. This lard 
gave the following numbers on analysis: 

Specilio grayity at 99 8666 

Iodine absorption, per cent 37.4 

Saponification equivalent 265. 2 

|(i alkali for the distillate from2J grama .. :;. ::<•<•. 
The volatile acids contained a notahle proportion of soluble acids of 

sparing solubility in water, and had the characteristic odor of the dis- 
tillate from cocoa-nut oil. The sample was certified to contain 33 per 
cent, of the adulterant. The must accurate determination of the cocoa- 
nut oil :s obtained from the saponification equivalent. Mr. Allen gives 

l.. m.i of March I. 16 
iinmercial Organic Analysis, Vol, 2, p. It-. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 

the saponification equivalent of lard at 289 and cocoa-nut oil at 219; 
hence every .7 tall in the equivalent below 289 indicates the probable 

presence of 1 per cent, of the adulterant. Pressing inquiries have been 
sent to Mr. Allen from America as to where cocoa-nut stearine could be 
obtained, but none was found to be on the market. The comparison of 
the analyses of pure lard and cocoa-nut oil is given in the following 

table : 



Original fat : 

Plummet gravity at 96* C - ...-74 

Iodine absorption 

s iponification equivalent - 

Volume of jjj alkali required by di>tillate from 5 grama 0. 5 7. i» 

Separated fatty acids: 

Plummet gravity at M C : .844: 

[odine absorption 61 to f.i 15.01 

Ifean'combining weight 



DETECTION OF COTTONSEED OIL IN LARD. 

Mr. A. II. Allen* has made a further stnd\ of tin- detection of cotton- 
seejl oil in lard. As a result of his analyses he givefi the following Hu- 
ll res : 




American Mi 

5&*rS? >::r > : ' :: " 



Original fat: 

Melting point C 4ii.ii 

Solidifying point, < ... 82.0 87.0 

Plummet grai r . 

Iodine absorption, p r 
cent 55. 4 61 

:• i«l> : 

Ifelting point, c ... . 

Solidifying point, G 

Plummet gravity at 06 C 

in combining welgbl 274 3 

Iodine absorption, per 

• •iit 

' »l- 

Oleioacid Iodine absoi p- 

lioii -7 1 ... 

tdilliau'i oitrate i 
rei • ... WblU sd Mark. J 

• I'hr Aii.il> at, September, 1888 



508 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



He also gives the result of a comparison of tallow, lard, and cotton 
oil: 



Tallow. 



Lard. 



Original fat: 

Melting point, C° 

Solidifying point, C° 

Specific gravity at 09 C°... 

Iodine absorption, per cent 
Fatty acids : 

Melting point, C D 

Solidifying point, C° 

Specific gravity at 09 C° ... 

Iodine absorption, per cent 



Cotton oil. 



>8to If 



Fluid. 



33 to 48 | 
40 



41.3 



SCO to. 861 
59 to 62 



04. 2 



105 to 110 

30 
115.7 



Analyses were also made of cotton oil and cotton-oil acids, as indi- 
cated in tlie following table: 



Plummet gravity at 99 C°. 

M. It ing point C° 

Solidifying point C° 

Iodine absorption 

Saponification equivalent. 
Acidity (—oleic acid) 



A.— Cotton 
oil stearine 

.8084 
40 

-;a 

89.8 



f'otton- 
-Cotton oil. ojl acids 
from B. 



.34 



,8725 



ios to no 



.8476 
35 
32 

115.8 

289 
07 



♦Rising to 32.5°. 

It is found that there is a marked difference in the specific gravity of 
lard and cotton oil, and also in the iodine absorption of the two. Lard 
;in<l beeffat have substantially the same specific gravity. The difference 
is important, since it would enable one to distinguish a mixture of beef 
stearine ami cotton oil, having :i n iodine absorption of about 60 from 
genuine lard. Tims, with a proportion of the adulterant in :i mixed com- 
position Of lard, the cotton oil only can be ascertained with considerable 
accuracy by determining the iodine absorption j the estimation will be 
below the truth if beef stearine be present. On the other hand, the 
presence of beef stearine does doI interfere with the deduction to be 
drawn from the increased specific gravity of the melted sample. 

Mr. Allen limls Millian's nitrate «>f silver tesi to l»e valuable, ami pre 
fcrs if to the original one proposed by Bechi. In his opinion the in 
dications obtained from the melting-point or solidifying-poinl of the 
glycei idefl of the fatty acids are <>f no value. Samples of hud oil were 
found to have an iodine absorption of 73 and 74, while one several years 
old gave only 41. It is recommended that the iodine absorption be de« 
termined on the fatty acids in stead of the original glyoerides, thus avoid- 
ing the use of chloroform, which has a marked disturbing influence on 
the strength of the iodine solution employed. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATION*. 509 

Hehner* states that in Bechi's test, without impairment of the deli- 
cacy, the re-agent inay be made up without the amyl alcohol or rape-seed 
oil. He makes the solutiou of nitrate of silver in alcohol and ether very 
slightly acidified, and adds to the oil to be examined about one-half of 
the bulk of the silver solution, and then heats od the wafer-bath for one- 
(juarter of an hour linger. Pure lard always remains perfectly on- 
changed by this treatment, while cotton-oil mixtures blacken more or 
less quickly. It is quite possible to arrive at approximate quantitative 
results by comparing the oil mixtures of known composition. Mr. 
Behner does not see any advantage in Milliau's modification. The rise 
of temperature when mixed with sulphuric acid is to be preferred as a 
method of. estimating the quantity of cotton oil in lard. The sample, 
of course, must be free from water. When 50 grams of pure lard, ac- 
cording to Hehner, are mixed with lOcc of strong sulphuric acid the 
rise of temperature varies from 24° to 27.5°, while cotton oil in the 
same conditions shows an increase of 70°. In every case lard which ie- 
dnces silver shows an increase of temperature of more than 27.5°. 

[Note.— Compare these temperatures with those obtained in our ex- 
periments. The mean rise of temperature for pure lard was 41.5°, and 

the mean increase lor cotton oil 85.4°.] 

Roland Williams i lias also contributed a study to the adulteration of 
lard witli cottou oil. He regards the saponification equivalent as quite 

useless as far as the detection of cotton oil in lard is concerned, as both 

the lard and cotton oil require practically the same amount of aikali for 
saponification. In case of the use of cocoa-nut oil, however, the deter- 
mination of the saponification equivalent is of the highest importance. 
The melting-point also is regarded as of no value in respect of the de- 
tection of ad alteration, since it depends largely on the parts of the ani- 
mal from which the fat has been obtained. The specific gravity ol 

pure lard at the boiling-point Of water is about .861, and of cotton oil 

at the same temperature .872. It may be possible, therefore, to derive 

some valuable information in regard to the constitution of lard 01 

mixed lards from ;l careful determination of the specific gravity. Mr. 

Williams failed to obtain valuable results with Maiimem "s test. This 

failure was doubtless du.- to some imperfection in the method of ma- 
nipulation. 

In the absence oi interfering bodies Mr. Williams relies chiefly upon 
the percentage of iodine absorbed in estimating approximately the 
amount of cotton <»ii present ;is an adulterant. The addition of 
tine to lard interferes seriously \\ ith the determination <>t' the percent- 
age of added cotton oil by the iodine method. Be his found pure 

lards to absorb from <i<> to 62 per cent, of iodine. One sample <>!' lard, 
said to be leaf lard, absorbed only 51 per cent Some leaf laid ren 
dered by Mr. Allen himself absorbed 51.8 percent 



•1 k< Ana 

t The Analyst, September, 1886 



510 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Milliau's modification is recommended, but it is advised that a blank 
experiment be made with tbe re-agent, since sometimes alcohol contains 
imparities which reduce silver nitrate. Experiments in the use of the 

silver nitrate test for quantitative purposes did not give satisfactory re- 
sults. 

Jones* says that he was the first public analyst of England to cer. 
tify a ease of lard adulterated with cotton oil under the sale of food and 
drugs act. He first applied a qualitative test with chloride of sulphur 
essentially the process described by Warren. He used 5 grains of 
the fluid lard in a porcelain dish, to which he adds 2cc of equal vol- 
umes of chloride of sulphur and bisulphide of carbon. The mixture is 
well stirred at first and occasionally for fifteen or twenty minutes. No 
heat is applied. By this treatment genuine lard only thickens or be- 
comes rather stiff in three hours. If it contain cotton oil it becomes 
quite hard and solid in one-half hour. This test is very simple, but 
with practice one can with certainty pick out all lards containing cot- 
ton oil. lie estimates the extent of the adulteration by the percentage 
of iodine absorbed, lie finds that pure lard never takes sensibly more 
than 00 per cent, of iodine, while cotton oil takes 103 to 110 per cent. 
He adopts the formula — 

100 ( l - al ' s, "^ ,1 - ,, ° )= per cont. cotton oil. 

The accuracy of the work is checked by the specific gravity taken at 
100° F. At this temperature the specific gravity of pure lard is taken 
n .'.moo, and of cotton oil at .9135. 

The formula for calculating the percentage of adulteration by the 
specific gravity is as follows: 

too ( Sp.gr.foand-906 ^ pr| . ,.,.,„_ ,,,„„„ oil . 

The radical error in the method Of Mr. Jones is, that he takes no ac 
count whatever of the admixture of stearine with adulterated laid, which 
may be done so skillfully as to wholly vitiate the method employed for 
determining the amount of adulteration. 

Stock 1 describes a modification of Milliau's method for the detection 
of cotton 0*1. His method is as follows: 

Fifteen gramsof the sample arc saponifie'J in a 7 Inch porcelain basin 
with a mixture of lace of 30 per cent. NallO and I5cc Of 92 per cent, 

alcohol. To commence, the fat is heated to 110° 0. The alkaline al 
cohol must be added in quantities not exceeding Lcc at a time, the 

The Analyst, September 1888, p. IT<». 
| i be Analyst, September, 1888 p. 172, 



LARD AXJ) LARD ADULTERATIONS. 511 

temperature not being allowed to fall below 95° C. to 100° C, constant 
stirring at this part of the operation being most important. If the sa- 
ponification has been successful, the resultant soap is a smooth, thick 
paste. Boiling distilled water is now added drop by drop, a thin, flexi- 
ble spatula being used to break down the paste. When this has the 
appearance of smooth starch, water maybe run in till a volume of 500cc 
is reached. Complete solution should follow. Forty cubic centimeters 
of diluted sulphuric acid (1 — 10) are now added to the contents of the 
basin, the liquid is stirred gently and brought to boil for seven to twelve 
minutes, then kept just below boiling, until the separated fatty acids 
fuse to a clear oily layer. The greater bulk of the acid watery liquid is 
siphoned off, the remainder with the fatty acids being [toured into a 
clean, warm flask with a somewhat long and narrow neck. The tatty 
acids are freed as nearly as possible by siphon age from the watery 
under layer, and the flask is tilled up with boiling water so as to bring 
the fatty acids into the neck, by which operation a partial washing is 
given, Five cubic centimeters of the fused fattj acids are now trans- 
ferred by means of a dry, warm, fast running pipette, into a clean, dry, 
wide test tube. Twenty cubic centimeters Of absolute alcohol are added, 
care being taken to wash the pipette by running t he alcohol through it. 

The contents of the test tube are heated to incipient ebullition in a ves- 
sel of boiling water. Two cubic centimeters of a •">!> pei' cent, .solution oi 
silver nitrate are now rapidly 'poured into the tube. when, if even 2 per 
cent, of cotton oil be present in the sample, the characteristic cedar- 
brown color is at once developed. Lure lard gives absolutely no 
color. 

To quantify tins reaction, known mixtures of pure lard and refined 
cotton oil are treated exactly as abo\e. and the colors in the different 

tubes compared by reflected light against a white background. This 
must be done simultaneously, for in about seven minutes the coloring 

matter begins to fall out, and correct comparison is then impossible. 
In careful hands excellent results are obtainable. 

Prof. J. Campbell Brown* calls attention to errors analysts are liable 
to make : 

1. They are liable to underestimate the proportion ol cotton oil when 
relying upon the iodine test alone. The reason of this is found in the 

admixture of stearine in adulterated lards which has a low iodine limn 
her. 

2, They are liable to condemn genuine lard which LH more oik than 

porkfat or lard rendered in England. Accordiug to UehuerAmci 
lard contains more oieiu than English. L donot think the assumption of 

II eh iter a just one since t he iodine number ol pure lards in this count i\ 
is found to be about the same as in England. 

.Mr. Watson Grevt crives the resull mi nations of the 



Op.cit.p. I 



512 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



absorption of iodine by lard showing a very low absorbtive power. Bis 
results are given in the following table: 



Kind of laid. Iodinoab- 
sorption. 




Pi /■ o at. 
49.5 

49 
C5 











Mr. Grey will fix the average for English lards at 57 per eeut. instead 
of 62 as taken by Mr, Allen. Mr. Fox stated that he had recently 
found 50 percent, of pea-nut oil in lard oil, determining it by the altered 
specific gravity and the presence of araehidic acid. 

Mr. M. F. Horn* gives a method for the quantitative estimate of par- 
affine, cerosin and mineral oils, in fats and wax. Inasmuch as these 
adulterations are not likely to occnr in lard I will cite only the original 
paper. 

Roland Williams t gives a table showiug the iodine numbers and melt- 
ing-points of certain fatty acids. The melting-points were determined 
by i lie ordinary capillary-tube method. Following are his results: 



Name of fatty acid. 



Tallow 

Laid 

I lottOD oil ... 

Olive oil 

Linseed oil... 

Rape oil 

' lastoi oil — 
I nut oil 

Palm oil 

Sperm oil — 



Iodine ab- 
sorption. 


Melting- 

point. 


J'er cent 
41.3 


OF. 
119 


64. i 


1U0 


li:.. 7 


96 




81 


178.5 ' 


75 


10.\ G 


71 


93. !> 






75 


:. :. l 


111 







The low melting-point in the case of lards is explained by Mr. Wil- 
liams on account of the i'al having been taken from the cut ire animal. 
As might 1><- expected the fatty acids absorb a slightly greater percent- 
age of iodine than the glycerides from which they were made. 

Prof. Stephen I*. Sharplessi relies upon the usual tests for thedetcc 
tiof) of the adulteration of lard with cotton oil. Bechi'fl test, lie says, 
gives .u<»(k1 results. Nitric acid of L35 specific gravity gives only a faint 
color w itli pure lard, while with lard adulterated with cotton oil it gives 
a color more <>r less intense. For the detection of added stearine made 
from tallow Dr. Bel field's microscopic test is employed. The suspected 

• n,,. \, , i~--. ,-. 184. Zeitsohr, i'. A.ngew. Chernie, No. 16, L888, p. 459. 

t The Analyst, May, 1888, p. 
; The Analyst, April, 1888, p, 69. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 513 

laid is dissolved iu ether in a test tube, which should be about two-thirds 
■lied. The solution should be nearly saturated. The tube is loosely 
stopped with cotton wool, aud placed iu a quiet room, at a temperature 
If about C0° F. When the first crystals are formed they are removed by 
means of a pipette, placed on the slide of the microscope, and examined 
in the usual way. The forms of the crystals produced have already 
been described. 

David Wesson* says of Bel field's microscopic test, that while at times 
it gives very characteristic crystals, at other times their forms are Dot 
■ufficiently definite to be relied upon. The nitric and sulphuric acid 
tests are sometimes unreliable, especially withhold samples. Bechi's test 
is also sometimes uncertain. On old samples of cotton oil it sometimes 
lives negative results, while with old samples of lard oil it Mill give a 
slight reduction. 

Michael Conroyt uses the following tests for the determination of the 
purity of a sample of lard. 

(1) Heat and stir about one-half ounce of lard with one-tenth its 
freight of strong nitric acid, specific gravity 1.42, in a porcelain dish 
of about 8 ounces capacity, until a brisk action commences, when the 
source of heat should be removed. Pure lard sets in about one hour to 
a pale orangi -colored solid, but if it contain cotton oil it takes a more or 
less deep orange brown tint. 

(2) The test ofLabiche was also tried, as follows : Equal parts of the 
fat and neutral acetate of lead and ammonia added, stirring briskly. 
The acetate of lead decomposes and the nascent oxide reacts upon the 
oil. causing it to turn red. This reac&OO proved a failure. 

(•i) The proceeding of Ernest Milliau By this test it is claimed 1 per 
cent, of cotton oil cm be detected. 

(1) Bechi's tot ; When sodium carbonate has been used to correct 

the acidity Of lard this test is not applicable, unless tli,. reagent be 

acidified with nitric acid. The following modification of Bechi'a test 

was employed : A solution of live parts of silver nitrate and one part of 
nitric acid, specific gravity 1.42, iu <>ne hundred parts <>f alcohol. Put 
(J grams of lard in a dry test tube and add one-fourth gram Of the go 
lutiou above described, and hold the tube in boiling water for five min- 
utes. Pure lard remains perfectly white, but if adulterated « i 1 1 1 cotton 
oil it assumes a more or less olive brown color. This Color is best «>!> 

lerved when the lard sets. One percent. of cotton oil in a laid gave a 

color quite distinct from the genuine article. 

Cotton oil lia^ also been used for the adulteration of tallow, t 

The melting point of the genuine tallow, according to William-. \a 

ries considerably in different sample Qgfrom LOO t«> 120 1'. 



• I lie Analyst, July. 1888, p. 1 1". 

t'l'iic Analyst, Vol. 13, No. 151, p. 203. The Puarmacentical Journal and 

tioilv Srptrnil.rl 

{ Roland Williams, Jonrnal ofSo< iety of Chemical [ndnstry, March, 1688, p. 186 
i;.;iu__j ( t. i_ s 



514 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 






The best class of tallow lias a melting-point of about 110° F. Pure 
tallow requires from 10.3 per cent, to 19.8 per cent, of caustic potash foi 
saponification, and cotton oil 19.1 to 19.6. A series of mixtures of tal- i. 
low and cotton oil was prepared containing 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 
per cent, of the oil. The addition of the cotton oil did not have the effect 
upon the melting-point which might be expected. The pure samples 
melted at 110° F. and the one with 40 per cent, oil at 102° F. The 
quantity of iodine absorbed was by the pure tallow 40.8 per cent., and 
by the mixture containing 40 percent, oil 06.2 per cent. The percent: 
ages for the several samples were as follows: 44,47.1,49.7,52.9,50.1, 
59.2, 0G.2. The percentage of iodine absorbed by the original cotton oil 
was 109.1 per cent. The "percentages of iodine absorption have a re 
markably close connection with the percentage of cotton oil present in 
the various mixtures. 

REACTION OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE GLYCERIDES FOR CHOLES- 
TERIN AND PHYTOSTERIN. 

The presence of cholesterin in animal glycerides, especially liver fat, 
has long been known. 

A substance homologous with cholesterin was detected in the oil of 
Calabar beans in 1878 by Hesse, to which he gave the name of phytos- 
terin.* 

Salkowski proposes to distinguish animal and vegetable fats from 
ea<h other by testing them for cholesterin and phytosterin respect] 
tively f. To obtain the cholesterin (phytosterin) 50 grams of the glycer 
ides, animal or vegetable are sapouilied with alcoholic potash. The 
alcohol is evaporated, and the soap diluted with water to about 2 liters. 
This is shaken in a separating globe with ether, and the ether solution 
drawn oil* and evaporated to small bulk, The residue, which may con. 
tain a small quantity of UO saponified tat. is again treated with potash, 
and the separation effected by ether, as above, only a little water being 
added, if the ether solutions separate slowly, a few drops of alcohol 
may be added. 

The ethereal extract is evaporated and the cholesterin separated in 
crystals. Animal cholesterin has a melting-point of L46°; vegetable 
(phytosterin) 132°. The two also show distinctly crystalline forms 
which are easilily distinguished under the roiscroscope. Vegetable 
cholesterin shows star shaped crystals <>r bundles of long, quite solid, 

needles, while the animal produet gives thin rhombic tables. 

Dissolved in chloroform, the two products show different color reac- 
tions with Strong sulphuric acid. Cholesterin shows a cherry-red ami 

phytosterin a blue-red color, in mixtures of animal and vegetable gly ceil 

ides the melting point of t he cholesterin obtained may become a lair in- 
dex of the proportion of the two present. Thus. ;i melting-point of 1391 



* Vi. .1. ci. .-in. n. Pbarm., Vol. 19*2 p I ' - 
fZeitachrifl Itlr Analytisohe Cheroie, \ ol,96, p,67S?, 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 515 

'ouM indicate that the fat from which the cholesterin was obtained 
-as made up of equal proportions of animal and vegetable glycerides. 

SEPARATION OF STEARINE AND PALMITINE IN LARD. 

Egbert and Venator* have separated stearine and palraitiue from lard 
n the following manner : 

The sample is dissolved in cold ether in a test tube, and the closed 

:ube allowed to stand for some time. At the end of about two hours 

lie stearine begins to separate and is collected at the bottom of the 

:ube. The identity of the stearine was shown by its melting-point, viz. 

00°. The palmitin separates later. 

Tlie separation can also be effected by solution in boiling alcohol. 
The separated glycerides are separated from olein by pressing between 
blotting paper. 

ABSORPTION OF OXYGEN. 

Cotton oil absorbs a notable proportion of oxygen when subjected to 
the Livache proce 

Finely-divided lead is obtained by precipitating with zinc. About 1 
gram of the lead powder is placed on a watch glass and mixed with 
nearly 5 grams of oil. The disk is placed in a well-lighted room of 
medium temperature. 

Cotton oil gains about per cent, in weight in forty-eight hours. 
[The equivalent of oxygen absorption may also be approximately calcu- 
lated for cotton oil from its iodine number by multiplying this by .063 
(^=.063 • 

for cotton oil the number thus obtained is 0.7 per cent. 

klaidim: REACTION. 

Oleic acid under the influence of nitrous acid is converted into an 

isomeric elaidic acid. 

In like manner triolein C 3 H S (OCi:jIi ■■■())., is converted into elaidme. 
This substance is formed in crystalline masses, and its melting-point is 
variously given at 32° to 38 \ following is the method of applying the 
elaidinc test known as Pontet's process in the municipal laboratory of 

Paiis: 

< ; i am-. 

Of the oil to bo tested 10 

Nitric acid 5 

M >Tr II I J I 

Place in ;i teal tube and shake vigorously for three minutes until the 
mercury is dissolved; allow to stand for twenty minutes, and shake 
again for one minute. 

In from one to three hours the sample becomes bard. Olive, pea nut. 
pud lard oils give the hardest elaidines. Copper m;i\ be used instead 



/.'•it . f. A.Dgew. Chemie, June l l — p. IU<i. 

Muniiriii Boteol iflq ie#/. 



.510 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

of mercury, in which case the nitric acid should, be somewhat diluted. 
The red vapors produced by the action of iron on nitric acid may also 
be conducted directly into the oil. 

One part of the strong nitric acid may also be shaken with three to 
five parts of the oil and a solutioR of nitrite of potash added drop by 
drop with constant shaking. 

Attempts have been made to measure the relative hardness of the 
elaidine produced by the distance which a plunger carrying a known 
weight would sink into it, and the data thus obtained have been used 
for quantitative calculations. 

SPECTROSCOPIC EXAMINATION. 

The absorption spectrum of an oil depends upon the character of the 
coloring matter contained therein. Many vegetable oils give a spectrum 
characteristic of chlorophyll. 

( \>tton oil gives a banded absorption spectrum. 

The use of the spectroscope in examinations for lard adulteration is 
probably not as extensive and general as the merits of the process 
would warrant. 

FURTHER QUALITATIVE REACTIONS. 

There are other qualitative reactions which might sometimes prove of 
value in the examination of lard and its adulterations. 

These are the methods of Chateau, Fame, I[eydeureich, Penot, ('race 
Calvert, Fliickiger, and Uhessner. 

A tall description of these methods is given by Benedikt.* 

ABSTRACTS OP METHOD3 OF LARD ANALYSES, WITH RESULTS THEREOF] 

I Emnloved in thfl <; ,s " of MoG-eoch, Everingham &. Co. vs. Fowler Bros., before Chicago Board ol 

Trade. J 

Much progress has been made in the science of lard analysis sincQ 
the famous case of McGeoch, Bveringliam & c»>. rs. Fowler Bros., the 
notes of which have been published in pamphlet form by Knight a 
Leonard, Chicago, 1883. 

The complaint against the Fowler Bros, rested on the charge that 
they had sold prime steam lard which contained other than hog fad 

The Complaint was brought before the < IhicagO Hoard of Trade, and wai 

beard by the board of directors thereof. Samples of the suspected lard 
were submitted to a large Dumber of chemists, and an abstract of their 

methods of analyses and the results obtained follows : 



ii -iMhiNV OF DR. P. B. R< >8K.1 






He can generally tell, when ft sample of prime steaiu lard is sent to him, if therd 
have been any impurities put into it, bj examining its color and quality : the sain] 
plea .,,,. gent t<> him for tli<- purpose of seeing whether the lard is up to the proper 



Analyse der Fette nnd Wachearten, p. 198, etitq. 
• pamphlet mentioned, p. 1 16. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 517 

standard, whether it is off-color, or anything of that .sort : sometimes lard is of too 
dark a color; a small quantity of tallow in lard could not he detected hy its appear- 
ance to the naked eye ; a thousand or twelve hundred pounds of tallow put into one 
or two tanks could not he detected hy the eye ; he thinks during last Novemheronly 
a thousand or twelve hundred pounds of tallow was received into the house from all 
sources. Tallow fat is worth 7| to 8 cents per pound ; he has never tried it, and does 
not know how much tallow could he put in a tank of lard without it heing detected. 
25 or 20 per cent, could he detected, and he thinks 15 per cent, could he readily de- 
tected hy the naked eye and hy the taste; he has never tried 10 per cent : he thinks 
an inspector would readily detect 15 per cent., and with 10 per cent, of tallow he 
thinks an inspector would discover there was something wrong. 

TESTIMONY OF PSOF. M. DELAFONTALNE.* 

Chicago, June 6, 1883. 
To whom it may concern : 

This is to certify that on or about the 22d of May and the 2d of June, 1883, I re- 
ceived from Mr. Mixer, provision inspector of the Board of Trade, three samples of 
lard, respectively marked l, 2, and :>. Mr. P. McGeoeh requested me to analyze t hem, 
and 1 find that neither of tin-in is pure hog fat. Samples Nos. 1 and 2 gave indica- 
tions of cotton-seed oil, and both contain a percentage of heef steariue (or a. corre- 
sponding quantity <»f beef tallow) exceeding 10 percent. Owing to the small n 
the quantity of No. :! at my disposal, lean not testify positively and beyond reason- 
able doubt about the presence or absence of cotton-seed oil, hut the proportion of 
href steal ine is at leasl equal to that found in the other samples. 

M. Di i \ i ONTAINl . 

The experiments were all comparative; the same weight of each substance and 

the same hulk of solvents used, drawn from the same supply ; the vessels were of the 
same kind and capacity : tin- experiments were conducted on the same table, at the 
same window, etc. : nothing was different hut the final results for different samples: 
temperature between 12 and 15 degrees centigrade. For the detection of cotton- 
heed oil oleic was extracted, as usual, and tested hy the elaidine test (the taste and 

smell were noted too). For the extra stearins tin; lard was treated with eight or 

nine times its weigh! of pine alcohol and ether, half and half, allowed to Stand 
twenty-four hours, liquid then poured out and replaced hy a little over half as much 
Kain of the solvent, shaken oft< !i. filtered after eight or ten hours, dried, weighed. 

/ -. I. What quantity of lard did yoa operate upon I 

Answer. For some experiments on about l" grams; for others on twice that quan- 
tity ; for ot hers on 20 grams. 

mi. What was the liquid yoa used to dissolve the lard in I If a mixture, Btate 

what proportions of each liquid. 
Answer. Half Sqnibb's ether, and half Squibb'a absolute alcohol. 

l iiih. Did yon heat the lard and add to it the mixture, or did yon simply add the 

laid and then appl> the h«at ? 

Answer. The lard was heated to about ?<» degrees C. 

8eventk. What was the shape and si/.c of tle< rests] in which yoa thus treated it P 
Answer, Cylindrical glass jars, glass-stoppered, graduated, holding 50, 100, and 
MOco. 

Eighth. l>id yoa decani the liquid off! 

Answer. I did. 



Op. - n.. pp. 139, 1 I". I II. I I' l i 



518 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Tenth. After filtering or decanting as above, how did you treat it. orwhere did you 

keep it before weighing 7 

Answer. Dried it in an air-bath. 

Eleventh. Did you weigh the residue while on a Biter or in i beaker, or evaporat- 
ing dish, or bow .' 

Answer. On the filter. 

Twelfth. Wbat was the exact weight of the residue found I 

Answer. I have kept a record only of the resnlts; the only figures that I can find 
just now of the actual weight of the residue are the following: 

4.25 grams of lard, No. 3, gave 275 milligrams. 

4.7 grams of pure lard gave 3;*>0 milligrams. 

19.74 grams of pure lard gave 200 milligrams. 

9.4 grama of lard. No. 3, gave COO milligrams. 
In making his sample test of pure lard he took his material chiefly from the leaf 
lard and from the sides of the hog; some of it was salted and some was fresh ; before 
rendering it he cut the material into very small pieces, and allowed i1 to stand in a 
large volume of cold water for some time to take the salt out: it was then filtered 
out in pans and rendered on a sand-bath, that is. pans full of sand and heated from 
below, so as to get an even temperature and not burn the lard : after rendering, tbe 
lard was filtered, in order to remove any tissue or foreign matter from it : he is quite 
sine he got, into 1 per cent., all the lard there was in the material ; the temperature 
.•it which the lard was rendered was 175 to 200 degrees centigrade,* which is much 
higher than is necessary to break up tbe cells and melt all tbe stearine there may be 
in the lard. In getting the samples of lard from a packing-house he asked for pure 
prime Steam lard; in testing that sample he found it to run a little higher in stearine 
than the laid be rendered himself : he can not, of course, say that tbe sample procured 
from the packing-house was perfectly puro, because he did not himself see it ren- 
dered. Tbe solvent be used was absolute alcobol and tbe strongest of Squibb's ether; 
he always measured tbe solvent : the melted lard was at about ?o or 75 degrees cen- 
tigrade, when the solvent was applied, so as 10 be BUM the palmitine would remain 
in solution. After the solvent was mixed with tbe lard he did not ascertain its tem- 
perature; he had no use for that; the lard was allowed t -stand in the solution be- 
fore decanting about fifteen to eighteen and sometimes twenty-four hours, during 
which time it was kept in cold water, at a temperature 1. t<> L5 degrees oentigrade, 

always below 15 and Sometimes a little lower than l'3j he does not, know what the 
1 em i tela t u i e of i he room was i n w h ich the mixture was allowed to remain. The mixt- 
ure of alcohol and ether, after being added to the lard, was well shaken : after the 
olvenl had been decanted, he replaced it with about half as much of fresh so!\ - 
• tit ai had been fust used, shook it well and often for two or three hours, and then 
allowed it to stand ten or twelve hours or so, sometimes over night, again shook it 
several times, then filtered, and in order to avoid an error Mi.it might arise from the 
liquid evaporating ami lea\ in- a part of tin' residue too hard, he picssed it between 

blotting papers so as to absorb all that was not property residue, then dried in an 
oven and weighed it j Borne times, while it was on the filter, he poured more of the 

solvent on it and again filtered so as to dispose Of all that was soluble. lie can not 

see whal tin- residue could contain exoept stearine, unless it mighl be a small quan- 
tity of palmitine: he tested tin- residue b\ determining its molting point and its 

solubility, and that showed ii to be stearine ; there is no difference in the chemical 
charactei istics of the pure stearine procured from the fat of beef, mutton, or pork ; 

they are the same thing as far as he knows, and he does not know of any difference 
iii tin- chemical reaction of these differenl kinds of Btearine ; he does not attempt to 
distinguish between them ; he does not know certainly how much puro stearine lard 
actually contains ; it varios; he has never fouud it to exceed 2 per cent . in puro lard 
and sometimes it runs a- low as three-quarters of 1 per cent, when subjected to tfa 

Probabh Fabronboil is meant. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 519 

process for extracting it be has described ; very Likely it would vary that much in 
lard made from different parts of the same hog; bespeak on these points from his 

own experiments : lie has not looked for authorities on this subject : he is now per- 
forming-some experiments which he hopes will throw some light on this branch of 
the subject. 

# # * * # * 

Tn testing for cotton-seed oil he extracted the olein by moans of absolute alcohol. 
heated, allowing the liquid to cool and then filtering and drying oil' the alcohol: he 
takes a glass flask or anything capable of holding the lard and pours over it some ab- 
solute alcohol, and boils the two together for a few minutes, then allows the mixture 
to cool; this produces a crystallization ; and then having kept it cold for a number 
of hours he filters it, and the liquid is for all practical purposes a solution of olein 
and alcohol : t lie alcohol is then driven off from it and what is )>>[t is olein. In the 
case of these lard samples he treated the olein by the elaidine test, using as a liquid 
sulphuric acid saturated with the red fumes of hyponitric acid: by this treatment 
the olein of oils is turned into a hard solid mass; olein is naturally a liquid, but 
when the test is applied to cotton-seed oil the oil remains floating. The same test 
applied to pure lard oil or pure olive oil soon turns the oil hard. If cotton-seed oil 
and lard oil are mixed with this liquid the mixture will solidify only after a much 
longer time than would be required to solidity pure lard oil, or often it will not so- 
lidify at all, depending upon the proportion of the cotton-seed oil : he took a glass 
tesi-t ube and put into it a certain quantity of the olein to be tested, and the acid to 
about half the bulk of the olein, shook it well, and kept the tube ;it a temperature 
of about in degrees centigrade : he observed I he time it took for the liquor to solidify. 
Nitric acid for use in the elaidine test is not reliable and he did not use it: hi 
pi uds upon the absence of solidification after half an hour to determine the bae 
reaction. Lard oil solidifies pretty quickly when treated by the acid he employed : 
cotton-seed oil doesnol for several hours. 

Redoes not know of any writer who has stated that cotton-seed oil can not be de- 
teoted when it is present in less proportion than 5 to 10 per cent.: he has t hat informa- 
tion from personal conversation with others. His method of analyzing lard is not one 
published in the books, as far as he knows; he adopts it mainly as the result of put- 
ting this and that together. He is not Willing t<> take ten samples of lard prepared 
by a competent and reliable expert, whose certificate as to what they contain shall 
be placed in the hands of the president of the Board of Trade and stake his reputation 
on being able to tell which are adulterated and which pure, nsing in the analysis 

the methods he has employed in testing the samples in respect to which he has been 

testifying, because u mixture can be made with fats or some foreign oil which be 
has not sufficiently studied to bo able to certainly detect such substances; his exami- 
nations have been Willi lefelelice to detectili- BUbstsnCCS which are most likely to 
be used for the purpose of adulterations. bocL :i> tallow and some other subst ances. 

In the case of a mixture <d' equal proportions of pure lard with a lard from which, 

say, half of the lard oil has l teen expressed, leaving the mixture deficient in lard oil 
to the extent of25 per cent., that mixture would be found to contain more stearine 

I han pine lard. 

EVIDENCE Ol WILLIAM H08KIN8.' 

( IHICAGO, -fin" •'. 1 38 

This certifies that I have analj sod s sample of lard received from Mr, I ' . n 8 M 
marked No. 3, and find that it is adulterated with at l< sr cent. of beef 

rineorita equivalent of tallow; and further, I find evidences of the presence of oot 

I oilseed oil. Or one Of lis del i \ a I i \ , 



Q LMaRINI i:. 

Per Ht>sKi\s. 



' <>p. .it., pp. I 17, 1 |! 






FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS 

Chicago, June l, 1883. 
This certifies that I have analyzed two samples of lanl, marked respectively No. 1 
and Xo. 2, received from Mr. Mixer on May 30, 1883, and find that both are adulterated 
with beef stearine or its equivalent amount of tallow to the extent of at least 20 pel 
cent. 

G. A. Mariner. 
Per HOSKINS. 

One ofhis methods was by taking eqnal proportions of alcohol and ether, and into 
thai mixture putting a certain amount of pure lard, and also an eqnal weighl of the 
samples to he tested. The lards were warmed, and were 1 hen poured into the \ 
containing the mixture under exactly the same conditions. After BOme time more or 
lessof the stearine separated. Id pure lard, treated in the way he has described, the 
separated substance, which is chiefly stearine, rarely exceeds 1 per cent. Oneoftho 
.samples given him by Mr. Mixer gave less than 4 per cent. : one ga\ <■ over 5 per cent. 
Another process, known as Blythe's pattern process, is to take a piece of glass, chem- 
ically cleaned, and having a thin film of water on it. On this is dropped a drop of 
the melted substance. In the case of lard one pattern is produced, in the case of tal- 
low a di tie rent pattern, and in the case of the mixture of the two a si ill different and 
intermediate pattern is produced. If- regards litis as an absolute lest and one easily 
Applied; Another test used is to ascertain the difference in time taken in saponifying 
samples. Tallow takes much less time to saponify than lard does, under proper and 
the same conditions. This process gives quite accurate results. These are the chief 
tests he depended upon in his chemical ex ami n at ions of die samples now in question. 
The processes he lias described are recognized by authorities, and have all been pub- 
lished as ant hority. He lias during the past t wo winters had considerable experience 
in examinations as to the adulteration of butter, and has studied the subject of fats 
to a considerable extent, lb- considers the results of bis examination of the samples 
given him by Mr. Mixer as conclusive in respect to their quality ; there is no possibil- 
ity of a doubt a- to the correctness of his conclusions in respect to them. In regard 
to the presence of foreign oil in lard there is an absolute test, known as the elaidiuc, 
test. It especially applies to drying oils. Nitrous oxide is made by beating mercury 

with nil lie acid. Ju treating non-drying oils with it the point noted is the fat w hi eh 
is solid. It makes no BUCh combination with drying mis, and when they are in large 

quantity they separate ami come to the top ami can be seen as liquid, [n other eases 
they form more or less of a Bemi-solid ; he thinks almost anybody could Bee the differ- 
ence when pointed out. although it requires considerable experience in the use of the 
microscope to be able to detect these differences unaided. Ail his examinations were 
eariied on parallel with examinations of samples of pure lard rendered by himself, at 
least a pai t of which was leaf lard. II- thinks there may be a little difference between 

(lie proportions of stearine in leaf lard ami fat taken from the sidesof the hog. It is. 

however, but slight. After ail his examinations of the samples iii question in this 

it is his absolute conclusion that the lard is adulterated to the extent of20 per cent, of 
foreign material, lie calculates the percentage of ad ulterat ion from Hie basis that, as 

pure lard never contains more than l per cent, of pure stearine, ami that tallow con- 
tains about ( .t per cent., therefore, as these samples contained none less than l per cent., 
there must have been added to the lard beef tallow, or some of Its derivatives, suffi- 
cient to account for the :; per cent, of excess, and as three nines are twenty seven. i,e 
concludes there wan over '.'<i per cent, of adulteration in the samples. Th«' test of 

adulteration is bj the amount of pure stearine found in tin- sample. 
BXAC1 mi > "i kNALl BIS. * 

\ portion of (he fat was warmed and mixed with ahoiit leu li s ils weight of a 

mixture of equal parts of absolnte alcohol and ether. After allowing it to stand 
about t went\ tour hours the residue w as filtered and weighed. 

•Op, eit, p. 1 19. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 521 

A plate of chemically clean glass was covered with a lilui of water, a drop of the 
Incited fat wias dropped upon the plate, and the patterns noted. 

A portion of the fat was saponilied with an equal weight of sodic hydrate dissolved 
in water, and the time occupied in saponifying noted. 

A portion of the fat was treated with a solution of byponitric acid and sulphuric 
acid, and the time necessary for the solidification of the elaidine noted. 

In all the above parallel experiments were made under exactly the same circum- 
stances in every respect. 

W. H0SKIN8. 

The above methods rests cbielly on the percentage of insoluble residue 
after treating tbe fat with a mixture of ether and alcohol as described. 

METHOD OF J. M. IIIRSII.* 

I melt the sample and dissolve it in purified naphtha, Leaving it there at rest ;it 
a temperature of about 70° F. for twelve hours, when added stearine or tallow 
will deposit, while pure lard will show no deposit, or barely a trace. The amount of 
the deposit increases considerably in the next twelve hours in a mixture with stea- 
rine, but little in pure lard. The test being made in a graduated tube, the propor- 
tions can In- read oil' without possible error by washing, weighing, or measuring. 
After the time mentioned the solids of the lard deposit. The remaining solution I 
treat with nitric acid, which renders crystalline the animal oil (producing elaidine), 
but leaves the cotton-seed oil a colored liquid. 

As a ride the melted sample- has minute libers of cotton floating when it is contam- 
inated with cotton-seed oil ; this test is simple and infallible: fur this reason I omit 
to men t ion other corroborative tests. 

J. M. HlRSlI. 
1 1 KTIIKi: REMARKS BY J. If. RIR8H.1 

Lard will give a reaction of elaidine as well as COtton-seed oil, but a time amply 
sufficient to make elaidine from lard or any animal oil must be greatly exceeded tp 
gel the same result froin cotton-seed oil. Iflinsedoil or cotton-seed oil, or the two 
mixed, are boiled for live minutes with a fume of nitric acid, there will be no ap- 
parent change except that they become colorless ; they will have to boil an hour or 
t w o before separat ion takes place ; in half an hour or so they would become a s did. 
like Stearine. Animal oils treated in the same manner will be solidified and con- 
verted into elaidine in five minutes. In applying the elaidine teal he first took all 
the crystals onl of the solution, then drew off from the tube all the olein and the 
benzine, put the nitric acid into that Liquid, and heated it ; the h. ozine evaporated 

quickly ; the heating was continued for a few minutes longer, and then it was allowed 

i" cool; the crystallized deposit of elaidine be considered as from animal oils, and 
w hat was left, after withdrawing the liquid, he considered was from an admixture of 
some other oil. in a laid rendered at a high pressure of steam there would be a 
greater amount of stearine than in one rendered at a Lo* pressure, n iginal ma- 
terial being the same. If lard is rendered and inn into a lai >;r hohlin. 

850 tierces, and there allowed to stand for a time, the lard from the bottom of that 
reservoir wonld contain a greater amonnl of stearine than would that drawn from 
the top. There would be a greal deal of difference. The heaviest lard would settle 
in the reservoir. The difference in the stearine wonld not be more than, if bo mocb 
•■'-.•- to 1 per cent, oi ohsmically pare stearins, a good deal wonld depend on the 

dsptb of the lank or reservoir and on the temperature maintained in the lard. II , 

thinks in laid drawn from the top or bottom of sneh a reservoir there would not 
much di fference in the stearine as hs has found in the lard delivered him by 

*Op. cit., p. 164. ♦ Op. nt.. p. l. ... 



f>22 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Professor Delafootaine over what pare lard should contain. 'I liere is some difference 
in lard on account of the season at which the hogs arc killed, and on acconnt of the 
ago, feed, and other conditions of the animals from which the lard is made. 

METHOD OF PROF. C. B. GIBSON. 4 

Five cubic centimeters of the molten sample, at a temperature of 90° to 100 
C . were dissolved into 45cc of half solution of absolute alcohol and ether: this 
mixture was allowed to stand eight hours. ;it a temperature of.") to 10 ('.. and 
Ihestearine allowed to crystallize out; the supernatant liquid was then poured off 
and '27>cv of the fresh solution added to dissolve any remaining olein and palmitio, 
and allowed to stand twelve hours at 5° to 10° C. The liquid was then filtered off 
and the residue collected on a tared filter; this was washed until no more fal glob- 
ules were deposited on evaporating a drop of the washings (alcohol and ether solu- 
tion); the filter and contents were then dried at a temperature of 30° to 40° C, and 
by means of desiccator, weighed and tin; result calculated. All samples were treated 
:i; the same time and under the same conditions. In the test for cottonseed oil, I 
submitted Dec of the molten lard to the action of sulphuric acid, saturated with 
nitrous and nitric anhydride, 7cc ; the test kept a! a temperature of 5 C, uutil soli- 
dification took place, which, in the case, of the presence of cotton-seed oil, is produced 
only after long time; from these results I drew my conclusions. All samples were 
tested at same time and under same conditions. 

C. B. Gibson. 

REMARKS BY PROF. C. B. GIBSON, t 

He took the two samples that he received from Professor Delafontaine, a sample he 
prepared himself, and a Bam pie he procured in the market, said to he absolutely pure 
lard, and treated them all by the methods he has described in his writ ten statement : 
all the samples were treated in corked tubes; the samples all produced different re- 
sults, some considerably different, and in the two samples he rendered himself there ^ as 
a slight variation; he tested the process by comparison with the pure lard he had 
rendered; he did not make up any samples of mix t ures ; in rendering the pure lard 
lor standard samples he cut the fat very fine and put it into a Large porcelain dish, 
ami adding water, boiled it from forty-five minutes to an hour; then he squeezed oul 

a portion of the fat, and subjected the residue to a little greater heal and extracted 

all the fat he could possibly gel out by any ordinary squeezing method; the lard then 
contained some water, which he removed as far as he could by decanting; then 

heated the lard over a sand-hath, being careful not to heat it so much as to hum it j 
bill he certainly had il at a sufficiently high temperature to hold the greater part of 

the stearins in a molten stale, and pass it through the filler. 

It would probably depend a little on circumstances which of two samples ol lard, one 
rendered at a low pressure and the other at a high pressure, would contain She most 
ne; Bpeaking casually he should saj the one rendered al a high pressure would 
contain the mosl ; he means by high or low pressure, a greater or less pressure in 
squeezing oul tin- lard as is ordinarily done in a small way; he should think there 
might be a tolerable variation in the quantity of lard stearine from this cause, hut. 
°f the pure steari no there ought not tobesuoh a remarkable difference. I' depends 

entirely upon when the lard is produced, when the hog 16 raised, when killed, what 

fed npon, and perhaps other conditions, as to how much stearine there maj be in 
lard: authorities differ on the subject ; some claim there is as high as 33 per cent., 
others less, of lard stearine; as far as he has been able to learn, lard stearine varies 

from 30 to lOper cent., and pur ■ ohemically pure stearine ir less than 1 per 

etui to about ■'< "i :'• pi i cent, depending upon the conditions he lias referred lo; his 
personal examinations have shown n variation of from a little under l per cent, up to 
about •.''. pei cent. He should think, the hotter the hog Is, the better would be the 



• Op. -it., p. i ; lOp.cit., p. ]•>. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 523 

fat from it, and probably the richer the fat in stearine, and this would apply to the 
lard rendered from a large number of hogs of average line quality, as compared with 
ihe lard rendered from a large number of average inferior quality; samples drawn 

from different parts of a large tank holding 250 ierees might vary a little, depending 
upon whether the lard put into it was thoroughly mixed, at what temperature or how 
fast it had been cooled, and other conditions. 

TESTIMONY OF C. GILBERT WHEELER.* 

In treating the lard the particular process upon which he relies— although he used 
others, some of which pointed to the same conclusions and others to no special result — 
is based upon the insolubility of pure stearic acid in a mixture of absolute alcohol 
and etlnr. In treating by that method he takesa given amount of laid ami nine times 
as much of a mixture, composed of equal parts of absolute alcohol and ether, places 
them in a closed vessel, with a graduated scale upon it, agitates, and exposes to alow 
temporal nro, the agitation being repeated a few times : then, alter standing for about 
twelve hours, the supernatant liquid is poured off and as much more of a fresh sap- 
ply is added, and again shaken; after standing again for about twelve hours tin; 
liquid is entirely poured off, the residue collected, dried and weighed, and its amount 
compared with that obtained in the same way from both pure lard and impure laid. 
Pure lard should give a certain per cent, of residue, impure lard gives more : t In- 1 SS- 
idiie so obtained is pure stearine. In the case of pure lard rendered by himself for a 
standard of comparison in his investigations of tin; samples in question, the amount 
of residue obtained was nine-tenths of 1 per cent. Id the samples he was to examine, 
No. 1 gave 3.6 per cent., No. 2 gave 3.29 per cent., No. 3, gave 2.75 percent. The proc- 
ess was conducted at a temperature of about 75 degrees Fahrenheit ; the amounts of 
laid taken were, for the pure lard. 10 grains : of sample No. 1, 10 grams ; No. 2 5 grams, 
and No. 3, 5 grams. 

The evidence of which an abstract lias been given was on the Bide of 
the prosecution and the charge of adulteration appears to be well 
(bonded in the light of the evidence given. Following is a brief ab- 
stract of the chemical evidence introduced by the defense ■ 

rESTIMOlTX 01 DR. ROBRR1 i i ill T.\ 

Dr. Til ley made a microscopical examination of the samples in UU and gave the fol- 
lowing cert ificate : 

Chicago, Jm u 29, 1 36 

This is to certify that on the 9th day of June, l — ■'>. I received from Prof. W. 8 
I laines samples of lard la he led, res p..- 1 Lvely, No. l low ler, No. 2 Fowler, No. 3 Fowler; 
thai I have examined the same microscopically, and that I can find do evidence of 
adulteration; and consequently, in the absence of snch evidence, I believe said samples 

to he pan lard. 

Robert in u \ . M I >. 
! )i . Tillev added the following explanatory remarks : j 
He has examined fats when crystallized in the manner desei ibed bj Mr. Hoskins; 
be has never bad a sample <>f pure palmitine to examine, and therefore can do 
whether there ia any difference between the crystals of it and the crystals of stearine; 
he can not saj whether the appearance of the crystals, in the methods used bj him- 
self, depends apon the relative proportions oi stearine and palmitine. because be does 
not Know of anj means, apart from temperature and pressure, of thoroughly isolat- 
ing palmitine and be has oever doneil ; he Is of the opinion that the greater pari ol 
the solid i':o of either the beef or the bog is steal inc. and not palmitine; the constit- 



'Op. oik, p. 160. tOp.oit.,pp. 1(15, 166. Op.oik.pp. 167, 16 



521- FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

nent parts of laid are oleine, palmitiao ami stearine; the crystals ofsteariue seem to 

be modified according as the substance is mixed with beef stearin©, or hog stearine; 
his answers are in part from the books and in part from his own experience; he has 
never had the opportunity of observing any modifications in the crystals by an in- 
crease or diminution of the palm i tine in a specimen, and consequently can not say 
w hether or not the crystals would be moditied as stearine or palmitine predominated. 
In applying the method of microscopical examination to lard, described by Mr. 1 Ins- 
kins, he takes a microscopical slide and cleans it, chemically, then puts on the sliile a 
small quantity of the specimen to be examined, puts it in a water-bath, at the tem- 
perature of boiling water, covers it with a covering glass and allows it t<> cool as 
slowly as possible; he has made a number of experiments of this kind, sufficient to 
satisfy him that he could find no distinction. The method he need, and upon which 
his conclusions as to the lard in question in this case are based, was as follow < : He 
dissolved the specimens in sulphuric ether, allowed the ether to partially and slowly 
evaporate and crystals to deposit, then decanted the remainder of the ether, washed 
with ether and decanted again, then treated with absolute alcohol ; after which the 

crystals were examined under the microscope. 

* * # # # * * 

Commercial stearine may or may not include palmitine, according as heat and 
pressure are used in the separation; he thinks he understands the manufacture of 
commercial stearine; it, would depend upon the temperature to which it is subjected 
whether it would contain all the original parts of the fat, except what oleine may 
have been pressed out; palmitine is said to liquify at a temperature of 45 ('. 
consequently if the fat material is subjected, at that temperature, to a pressure 
similar to that used for extracting the oleine, the palmitine would also be forced 
out ; he docs not know, as commercial stearine is usually made, that it is ever 
subjected to a temperature high enough to press out the palmitine, but he has seen 
it subjected to a temperature in the manufacture of candles— obtaining stearic 
acid — when it certainly would bo pressed out; as to whether the crystals-produced 
from commercial stearine would be the same as those produced from what has been 
called by other witnesses chemical stearine, he can only say that he is not acquainted 
with the peculiar characteristic features of palmitic crystals: the size and genera; 
character of the crystals depends on the temperature and slowness of evaporation; 
there is a difference between the crystals of pure stearine from lard ami that from 
tallow; he States this upon the theory that the stearine he has obtained was pure 
steaiiiie, but inasmuch as he is not sine that the stearine he obtained did not con- 
tain a mixture <>f palmitine, he desires to make that qualification. As between the 

Crystals obtained by his process and those that caused the so called grain of the lard, 

bo could not, chemically, see any distinction whatever; microscopically this grain 

seems to be t he crystal, in a form very much resembling an ordinary roadside bur, w hen 

examined under the microscope, but the details are so ill-defined that it is simply im- 
possible to make any differentiation ; the orystal itself would be a solution, if melted. 

I le does not think crystals obtained tVoiu lard itself, without extracting the oleine, 
WOUld be as Valuable as UlOSe from the stearine, because ii is acknowledged t hat 
thai t hen- is at least 60 per cent . of oleine in t he lard, and t hat <">() per cent . of c\ t ra- 
m-on* mat ter won hi, bethinks, necessarily render the crystals more diffioul! to dif- 
ferentiate than if crystallized from the stearine alone : probably the orystals which 
i ii.iraetei i/e the grain of the lard are the same as those obtained by the met hod de- 
scribed by Mr. Uoskins; they mighl be the same thing, but ye! so moditied b\ the 

influence of the oh-ine, thai the peculiarities of the crystals would be Less prominent ; 
t hey would be more or less si lint cd, or their development favored. As to whether or 
not the method requiring the least manipulation would be likely to give the be I re- 
Hiilts would depend entirelj npon the advantages gained bj the manipulation, and 
the care with which it is done. In transferring the crystals to the microscope, he 
iii.< - a si 1 1. ill glass tube a pipette cutting off for each observation, with a file, the 
used in t he previous case, so thai it is perfectly clean as it goes Into the liquid ; 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 525 

it is difficult to get the crystals under the microscope in perfect form ; but he thinks 
the Board will have an opportunity to see bow perfectly they eau be gotten out, by 
an exhibition of photographs of those they have used for this examination; it is nec- 
essary that the crystals be washed in order to obtain a plain, cjear-cut specimen. 

CERTIFICATE OV MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION BY DK. W*. T. IJKLFIELD.* 

Chicago, June 29^ 1--:;. 

On June 12, 1883, I received from Prof. W. S. Haines three samples marked "Fow- 
ler l," " Fowler 2, n " Fowler :>," respectively. I have submitted these samples to mi- 
croscopical examination for the purpose of detectiug the presence of beef tallow. By 
either one of two methods 1 have satisfied myself of my ability to detect the pres- 
ence of beef tallow in lard, whenever the admixture contains 10 per cent, or more. 
by weight, of the tallow. 

By neither of these methods did I detect the presence of tallow in the samples above 
mentioned; I am therefore convinced that these samples do not contain an amount of 
tallow equal to 10 per cent, of the weight. 

I have as yet no knowledge of any methods of microscopical examination whereby 
I can detect an admixture of less than 10 per cent, of tallow icilk certainty, but 1 have 
never obtained in tin' samples above mentioned any appearances other than those 
which may be presented by pure laid. 

William T. BELFIELD. 

Dr. Bel field further says: t 

He is not familiar with the manner of manufacturing prime steam lard; he sup- 
the tanks are covered during the process of rendering and that when put into 
tierces it is covered, [fhe found in a sample of lard that had been kept covered ao 
excess of cut ton libers of special characteristics he should not draw any inference as 
to how they came to be there; if lard in which cotton libers wen 1 found was chem- 
ically tested for the determination of the presence of cotton seed oil, and the chemical 
test Bras Bnpposed to detect it, be would not be inclined to attach any more value to 
the chemical tesl on account of finding individual cotton libers in the lard by a mi- 
croscopical examination. He does not wish to in- understood as Baying no one can 
detect cottonseed oil in lard by microscopical examination; he meant to saj he could 
not do it. He has oot examined the crystals from isolated stearine or isolated palmi- 
tiue. In crystallizing stearine and palmitine, in the manner described by Mr. Bos- 
kins, he should think the appearance of the crystals would depend on the relative 
proportions of each, but as he has never worked isolated palmitine he can no 
certainly. In the method he uses the appearance of t In- <t\ stals does not depend on 
the relative proportions Of the stearine and palmitine in the mixture on which he 
operates ; there is said to be a difference between the crystals of stearine and palmi- 
tine. He ordinarily transfers crystals bom the liquid to the microscopic Blide by 
means of a clean pipette j it can be done, and In- has done it, by means of a clean 
knife Made, oi something of that sort, 'fhe objeotion to Mr. Hoskins's me; hod is that 
the characteristic crystals of lard and tallow are sol formed bj it; there is so much 
granular matter thai it gives crystals so nearly alike that he can not differentiate 

between those of lard and of tallow ; a principle to be worth anything, in mat;, 
this kind, must detect minute adulterations. fhe question of discovering adultera- 
tion in hud by microscopical examinations is a new one, at least it i> so t,i him. N 
discoveries of facts by microscopy, which maj be subsequently well established) are 
sometimes questioned even bj experienced miorosoopists, if tbej fail to follow the 
methods and directions of i he discoverer, it has been the i >lc in- 

stances. These persons may attempt to follow the discoverer, but. doing so imper- 
fectly, fail to ocure tin- expected results. This faot, however, does not apply to his 
judgment on the method pursued bj Mr. Hfoskins, because he followed Mr. Hoskins'i 
met hod as in- ,],■-■ i ibed it . 

•Op.cit., p. 1Tb. I >,. , it., p. I 



526 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

CERTIFICATE <>!• PROF. PLYMMON 8. 11AY1 ■>. " 

Chicago, Jm>< 29, L883. 
On the 9th day of June, 1883, I received three samples of lard from Prof. W. S. 
Haines, marked, respectively ' ; Xo. 1 Fowler," "No. '2 Fowler," and "No. 3 Fowler." 
These samples of lard I examined microscopically, after having crystallized the stear- 
ine found in the samples from solution, and was not able to detect any beef stearine 
whatever. 

PLYMMON S. HAYK8. 

Professor Hayes adds the following observations: t 

He has examined crystals which he obtained by dissolving the steariiie of beef 
tallow, of mutton tallow, and of lard — threo samples in absolute alcohol; the sub- 
stances were dissolved and crystallized, redissolved — and recrystallized, and finally 
the alcohol was evaporated off; he considered those the crystals of pure stearine ; he 
has never examined the crystals of pure palmitine to his knowledge ; he docs not 
know what, if any, difference there may be between the crystals from pure stearine 
and pure palmitine; he does not think the appearance of the crystals obtained by 
himself depend entirely upon the relative proportions of stearine and palmitin in 
the specimens; the crystals from a fat, consisting of oleine, stearine, and palmitine, 
which has been warmed and then slowly cooled, would be those of stearine and pal- 
mitine, probably more or less modified, as one or the other was in excess, and also 
by the presence of the oleine. Molten lard is a solution of oleine, stearine, and pal- 
mitine. When this is allowed to cool slowly and crystallize the crystals are value- 
less, for the reason that they give no distinctive difference when examined plainly 
or by means of the polariscope. He has examined crystals in the manner Ao- 
Bcribed by Mr. Iloskius ; he will not say Mr. Hoskins's method is wrong, either in prin- 
ciple or in application, but it does not produce results that are plainly marked. He 
pursued that process for over two weeks before he abandoned it as useless. In his 
examinations by that method ho took the sample to be examined and put it on a 
microscopic slide, put Q c over-glass over it, and applied heat until it was thoroughly 
melted, and then set it aside to cool ; sometimes he allowed it to cool very slowly, and 
sometimes be cooled it by means of a cooling apparatus: in neither ease did he get 
satisfactory crystals : he never tried cooling it by means of a hot iron allowed to 
cool slowly with the lard. 

CERTIFICATE OF DR. I. N. DANFORTH.j 

Chicago, -/"»< •-". , . L883. 
I hereby certify thai on the 8th day of Jane, 1883, 1 received from the hands of 
Prof. WalterS. Haines, of Chicago, three specimens of lard, numbered 1. 2, and ::, re- 
spectively, and said to have been manufactured by the "Anglo-American Packing 
and Provision Company," of Chicago j that I was requested by said Haines to ox • 
amine -aid specimens microscopically, and state my opinion as to their purity or im- 
purity : thai I have examined said specimens as thoroughly and carefully as the time 
allowed would permit, and am of opinion thai I hey are composed entirely of the fat of 
I he hog. 

[SAIC N. 1 I \M <>i;iii. 

Dr. Danforth in explanation said : § 

lb lias examined the crystals of pure stearine j he procured the hist specimen from 
Profi sBor Haines, and afterwards prepared specimens by methods ws^-d i>\ chemists; 
he has not examined the crystals of pare palmitine ; be does not understand thai any 

• Op. cit., p. 17'.'. I Op. pit., p. 188. 

I »|» clt., pp. 179, 180, »p. cit., p. 184. 



LAKD AND LARD ADULTEBATIONS. 527 

method lias been devised for absolutely isolating palmitine, and lie does not know 
whether or not there is any difference between the crystals of pure stearine and those 
of pure palmitine; he can not say whether the crystals procured by him depend on 

the relative proportions of stearine and palmitine iu the substance from which they 
are procured; while he does not claim to speak as authority on chemical subjects, he 
thinks the substance from which these crystals were obtained was particularly pure 
stearine ; he can not positively say whether the crystals obtained from a fat consist- 
ing of oleine, stearine, and palmitine would be those of stearine and palmitine more 
or less modified as one or the other was in excess ; he thinks the presence of the oleine 
would modify the crystals somewhat, but to what extent he is not able to Bay. 

METHODS FOLLOWED IN MAKING MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION BY MESSRS. TILLEY, 
BELFIELD, DANFORTH, HAYES, AND I: 

Dr. Tillers formula. — For the production of the crystals of stearine, whether from 
beef or hog products, I dissolve the fat in question in sulphuric ether, 10 grain- in 
2 drachms; allow the ether to partially and slowly evaporate, and consequently 
crystals to deposit ; decaut the ether remaining, wash with ether, decant again and 
treat with absolute alcohol, then examine the crystals under microscope. — Robert 
Til ley. M. D. 

Dr. Delfteld'* formula. — Ten grains of the fat are dissolved in Squibb's ether : the 
quantity of the latter may be 1 drachm or '-' drachms, or instead of the ether, a 
mixture' of this substance with absolute alcohol in equal parts may be employed as a 
solvent. The solution is allowed to stand in a test tube uncorked for twenty-four 
hours, at ordinary temperature; ;it the expiration of this time crystals are observed 
at the bottom of the tube : these may be examined directly through the microscope, 
or supernatant liquid can be poured Off and replaced by a drachm of absolute alcohol : 
this is subsequently removed and the crystals examined : the crystals may be mounted 
for examination in the solvent used or prepared dry. When specimens of pure lard, 
pure tallow, and mixture of both, within certain proporl ions, are treated in this way, 
characteristic crystals are formed by means of which the identity of the specimen 
can be established. Essentially the same results are obtained when the method is 
varied by changing the quantity of the Bolvent, \\ ithin certain limits, or by repeated 
washings with alcohol. — William T. Belfield. 

Dr. 1 hi a fnrt h's formula. — The oleine is tirst extract* d from the Bpccimeu to be ex- 
amined by the use of absolute alcohol or a mixture of alcohol and ether in equal 
put-, or by any ol ber method the experimenter may choose to adopt : the remaining 
steal i in- i- then dissolved in any one of a number of menstrua, as, for example, ether, 
t in pint i He, benzole, oil of Scotch pine, or any other solvent of stearine ; I usually em- 
ploy turpentine; from this Solution crystals are allowed to form, and the resulting 
Crystal I an- then mounted upon L,dass -lips prepared for the purpose in Canada bal- 
lam diluted with twenty-live per cent, chloroform, or a solution of damar, or they 
may be examined in the original solvent. Another method i have used recently to a 
considerable extent, is to place the specimen to be examined immediately in some sol- 
vent ot - - leai inc. OS ether, or benzole, or turpentine ( usually the latter >, in the propor- 
tion of ten grainsofthe specimen to be examined to a fluid drachm of the solvent, 
without I'm ing the oleine ; 1 then watch carefully for the formation of the 

first -lop of crystals; these crystals are then Immediately examined after being 
mounted iii i it 1m r on.- of the media that I have already mentioned. Recently I bave 
employed ;i solution of balsam in chloroform as q mounting medium because it 
the dearest Sold. The crystals are examined bj the use .of a one- quarter inch ob- 
jective and an "A" eye piece, giving a magnifying power of about two hundred and 
iii'i> to two hundred and sixty diameters, rue difference in appearance between the 
lard stearine and beefstearii Dan forth. 

" < »p. cit., pp. i •; V l -.' i] 



530 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

In a mixture of 90 per cent, of lard and 10 per cent, of cottonseed oil, treated with 
sulphuric acid, as he has ascribed, the color produced will be tho salmon, with a. 
tinge of slate peculiar to the lard, and in addition a tinge of the olivo brown pe- 
culiar to tho cottonseed oil ; tho shades of color produced by this process will 
probably be somewhat differently classed by different individuals, even as a result 
of seeing identical colors or shades of color ; some might call what he describes as 
olive brown, a mahogany brown, and so of other tinges of color, depending upon 
peculiarities of vision in different individuals; some persons are slightly color-blind, 
others greatly so ; he speaks of these colors as they appear to his own vision ; if a 
person has not an eye trained to distinguishing colors, he might not, perhaps, discover 
the difference in these shades ; the gentlemen who havo been associated with him in 
these examinations have beeu unanimous in picking out the colors peculiar to the 
lard, and to the cottonseed oil, and became trained in that respect before pronouncing 
on the several samples ; he has never applied the test to crude cottonseed oil, hut he 
has experimented on a number of specimens of commercial oil, and refined oil and 
cottonseed stearine ; his observation has been that the refined oil does not give as 
marked a color as the commercial oil does ; he can not say whether or not there would 
be any difference in the oil made in summer or winter; he has concluded that the 
color comes from the oil itself, and not from any foreign substances that might be in 
it, because he has tested three specimens of line oil, which were entirely colorless, and 
has also tested perfectly colorless cottonseed stearine, and from these tests he con- 
cludes the color produced by the test is due to the oil itself. In respect to the varia- 
tion of the amount of stearine in different samples of lard, he accepts as evidence of 
its truth the agreement of authorities who have discussed it in hooks and other pub- 
lications; ho understands tho agreement of writers, on this point, to rest on the 
well-known fact that in lard are tho constitutents of stearine and palmitine, which 
did oils; these can be separated approximately, not perfectly, perhaps, but suf- 
tieiently nearly so, when treated alike, to enable one to determine that some lards 
contain more stearine than others. 

His attention was first directed to tho subject of the detection of tallow in lard 
about live or six years ago ; at that time ho made somo chemical experiments on tho 
question, and again, about eighteen mouths ago, ho made a few other experiments 
in the same direction, and within tho past four weeks he has made numerous experi- 
ments. HuSBOn's method, as published, is to take a mixture of alcohol, at DO de- 
and ether at 66 degrees, which hi; understands to mean 00 per cent, alcohol 
and absolute ether; with this mixture he treats the previously wanned fat and allows 
the more solid portion of it to crystallize; he has a8ed HuBSOn's method, as he read 
it in French, and failed to obtain satisfactory results by it, and considered it untrust- 
worthy ; he dors not fully condemn it, because he is not fully convinced as to what 
Q means by alcohol at 90 .ml ether at 00 degrees ; if his interpretation 

Of the method is correct, he does not concur in its being of value. The comparative 

ta obtained by Professor Delafontaine and others, who have testified on behalf 
of the prosecution in this case, by which the lard in question was shown to havo 
itaarine than the pure lard, which they used in comparison, oarriea no conclu- 
sion to his mind whatever, for the reason that Professor Delafontaine testified that 
the only lard which he knew to be pure, and with which he tested the samples in 
comparison, was kettle-rendered hud. It is manifestly unfair to take thai as a stand- 
ard for comparison with prime steam lard ; bnt besides that, his own experience in 
treating lard, by the process described by Professor Delafontaine, shows it to be fal- 
lacious from the very foundation, and he attaches no import ance to any resull - ob- 
tained by it or by modifications of it. 

lie means to be understood that, so far as he is able to determine, the samples ot 
the lard now under consideration, w huh weM examined by him. contain absolutely 

no adulteration. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 531 

certificate of prof. e. b. btkwabt." 

July 3, 1 
This certifies that I have carefully examined three specimens of lard received from 
Prof. W. S. Haines on the 20th of June, 1883, and find that they present the charac- 
teristic of pure hog's lard, free from tallow and cottonseed oil. 

E. B. Stewart. 

METHOD OF EXAMINATION FOLLOWED BY PROFESSOR STEWART. t 

Both pure kettle-rendered and steam- rendered lard were treated with about three 
times its weight of absolute alcohol at a temperature just sufficient to melt; the solid 
residuum which separated on cooling was assumed to consist of tristearate of glycyl 
principally; this was treated with, first, oil of turpentine ; second, petroleum naphtha ; 
third, bisulphide of carbon ; fourth, benzole; fifth, Squibb's strongest ether; and, 
sixth, melted in balsam fir. Pure beef tallow was treated with absolute alcohol in the 
game way, and subsequently with the same reagents. 

E. B. Stewart. 

July 3, 1 

certificate of prof. 8. p, 8harpl1 

July 3, 1883. 
I have examined three samples of lard submitted to me by Prof. W. S. Haines, and 
marked Nos. 1, 2, 3, Fowler Bros. I have been unable to iind any adulteration in 
these samples, and believe them to be pure hog product. 

s. p. Sharpless. 

In explanation of bis results Professor Sharpless sa\ 

Ho received from Professor Haines, two weeks ago, three samples of lard, mark. 
spectively, No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, since which date ho has devoted his time to their 
examination. The samples were received in t in boxes, wrapped in paper, and properly 
I. The work of examination was commenced OU the 19th of .June, and was con- 
ducted jointly by Professor Doremus, Professor Haines, and himself, at the Laboratory 
of the College of the City of New York. After opening the boxes the contents of each 
were thoroughly mixed, and then "> grams were weighed out from each of the 1 

mittod to the action of absolute alcohol and the strongest 
ether, both being carefally tested as to their strength ; be, at the same time, for the 
purpose of comparison, prepared a sample of tallow, rendering it himself in order to 
bo certain of its pnrity ; 5 grams of this tallow were also weighed «>ut ; these samples 
were weight d into small flasks, and the fats oi' each were melted, and then 50cc of the 
mixture of alcohol and ether was poured over each specimen ; the flasks w ere Bhaken 

until the alcohol and ether had completely dissolved the whole of the tat. Thifl 

i tot that will show whether the lard contained March or salt Or whether there 
's much water in if ; lard having much water in it will give a clear BOlotion, bol 

bo milky in appearance; these Lards al! gave perfectly clear solutions, with per- 
haps an occasional particle of wood from tin- cask ; t here was very little fibrous mat- 
ter in any of tie- samples; he has never j tmples of lard that I feetly 

free from fiber; these irere my he had ever seen ; th< 

in a closet, at the same temperature for each, until the oex1 morning, when they wen 
examined. The bulk of the precipitate in the different flasks differed : in some I 
slightly flocculent, in others it adhered to the bottom of the flask j this latter condition 

Was more marked i-i t he case <,f this tallow, which formed a thin layer over the bottom 
of the flask ; the liquid was poured Off ami 35C0 of fresh was added, and the lla^ks 

were allowed to stand, with the fresh solvent in them, until the next morning, and 



tOp. eit... p. 8S ':,. clt, pp 



532 FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

then their contents were filtered, the precipitate washed with a little absolute alcohol, 
and weighed. Sample No. 1 gave 4.35 per cent, of precipitate : No. 2 gave 2.90; Xo. 
o gave 2.4, and the tallow gave 5.3 per cent, of precipitate. At the same time an- 
other series of experiments was tried by weighing out the same amount of lard and 
adding to it the mixture of alcohol and ether; in this case the lard was not melted 
previous to the addition of tho alcohol and ether ; after these were added the flasks were 
shaken thoroughly and stood in a water-bath at tho temperature of Croton water, 
which at that time was about 72° F., the water being allowed to run around the 
flasks; they were left standing in the water in this way lor a little over two hours, 
during which time they were shaken every fifteen minutes; at the end of this time 
the contents were allowed to settle ; the liquid was then poured off and 25cc more of 
the solvent was added, again shaken, and the residue of each sample was collected 
on filters, which had previously been weighed; this series of tests produced a little 
higher per cent, of residue in every case than tho former. No. 1 gave 5.C3 ; No. 2 
gave 4.1? ; No. 3 gave 3.09, and it was found impossible to filter the pure tallow on 
account of the large mass of crystals it gave. The day after this test they rec< 
;i sample of pure prime steam lard from Chicago, rendered under the supervision of 
Dr. Tilley ; he made two parallel experiments upon this pure lard ; the first one gave 
a residuum of .44 of 1 per cent. ; the second gave 3.14 per ceut. These samples were 
taken from the same mass of lard at the same time, and were treated with exactly 
the same solvent of alcohol and ether ; during the process they stood side by side in 
the same closet, were filtered off at tho same time, weighed at the same time, and in 
every way treated alike, and yet ono gave nearly eight times as much residue as the 
other. In connection with Professors Remscn and Witthaus he tried another series 
of experiments, following out tho same method as in the first series, with results sub- 
stantially the same as in tho first experiment, which he has detailed so far as the lard 
was concerned. In this experiment there was also a mixture of lard and tallow, but 
ho did not find that the addition of tho tallow made any perceptible difference in the 
result. This experiment will probably be more fully described by Professor Remseo 

CERTIFICATE OF PROF. IRA IIKMsi \ ' 

( BICACO, -lull/ .">, 1—.'.. 

I hereby certify that I have examined by chemical methods the three samples of 
lard designated as Nos. i , 2, and 3, " Fowler," submitted to me by Prof. W. 8. Haines. 

and have failed to find any foreign substance in them. I am. therefore, of the opinion 
that the samples are pure lard. 

Ih.v Ki:msi:\. 

Professor Remsenl stated thai he received from Prof. w. 8. Haines, for analysis, 
samples «'f lard, designated 1, 2, and 3, u Fowler, n and has been working on 

them c uistantly for about ten days, to a considerable extent night and day. When 
these samples were fust submitted to him he m1 about a very oareful search through 
the Literature on the subject to determine whal method ought to be adopted in the 
examinations of them. He was disappointed by finding that the chemical study of 
Lard had, apparently, received very little attention. The methods for the chemical 
examination of lard which have been, perhaps, the most frequently employed, are 
similar to those which ire used in the examination of butter; indeed, the chemical 
knowledge of batter is much more general than that of lard. Alter considering the 
subject he decided, as he thinks most, do who are e;illed upon to investigate lard, to 
adopt as an experimental method that of Husson, which is based on a very sim- 
ple principle. Fats are known to di tier in the proportions of oleine, palmitine, and 
steal ine contained in them. In liquid fats t here is a larger proportion of oleine, and a 

proportion Of Stearins than in those Of a more solid character. In ease a fat 
•Op.cit., p. 240. tOp. cit.,pp.238, 839,940,241,345,946. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 533 

which is naturally rich in steariue should be adulterated with one which is rich in 
oleine, he thinks chemistry could very easily detect that adulteration ; there are, 
however, several fats which are so similar to each other, in respect to the proportions 
of the constituents they contain, that when they are mixed it is a very difficult mat- 
ter for chemistry to detect the mixture. The best method he could think of was 
the separation of the stearine from the oleine, if that could he effected ; hut there is 
no method by which this can be entirely or auything like entirely done. If fats are 
treated, in comparison, with some substance which will partly separate the stearine, 
but leave some behind, and then that which is left behind in the one is compared 
with that left behind in the other, both being accurately ascertained, and one is 
found to be much larger than it should be. it is strong ground for suspicion in one's 
mind that there is something the matter with it, without, perhaps, being able to say 
exactly what has been put into it. In order to test a sample of lard by this p. 
it must iirst be known what standard lard really contains, or, if tallow or any other 
far, what that fat contains; this, however, can not be ascertained from the b 
because, in reaped to reliable data on the subject, they are singularly silent. It is 
stated repeatedly, in the books, that lard varies in its composition, depending on a 
variety of causes, such as the dryness and other conditions of the food on which 
the animal from which it was produced was fed, the season of the year when fed or 
when killed, etc. No one seems to have made so complete an investigation of the 
subject as to state to what extent these variations may go, hence it is absolutely nec- 
essary, in an examination of lard, to iirst get something that may be considered a 
Standard of pure lard, to know what is pure lard, and to make an exhaustive inves- 
tigation of the subject. There ought to be a very extensive investigation of different 
specimens of lard, so as to find out what variations in the constituents are possible. 

For the purposes of this investigation, he procured at the out>et a sample of lard 
known to be pure, w ith which COmpal isons could be made as the invest igations pro- 
• \ : and then if, on a com pa rat n e examination, the lards submitted for examina- 
tion were found, to conduct themselves in all respects in the same manner, and no 
differences were found in them, the conclusion would be justified that the lards to lie 
tested were pure. In the process of examination, he in the first place applied Ilussoifs 
method, and also a modification of that method, suggested from reading the testimony 
..I Professor Delafontaine. lie also applied the elaidine test and tin- pattern test, and 
he treated them with sulphuric acid, lie also examined these samples by means of 
the Bpeetroscope and by transmitted light, and he has to some extent examined them 
microscopically; ami he can say that, after all the examinations which he has been 
able to give to the Bamples of lard submitted to him by Professor Haines, his only 
conclusion is that he can find no impurities whatever in them. 

In his examinations he lias paid particular attention to the method described by 
Professor Delafontaine, in that gentleman's testimony in thisi a* . That is not the 
method described in the books, ami known as Hosson's method, but i^ a modification 

of that method to suit the case of lard. It depends upon the relative amount of residue 
remaining after treatment With alcohol and ether, ami he has t.» say that if that 
method is a good ami reliable method, then, beyond any possible question in his mind. 

the samples l. 2, and :; submitted to him an- pure hud. w it 1- not a reliable method 
t proves nothing. ib>is not prepared to absolutely condemn the method, for the 

Subject has n.ver 1... n studied, so far as he SHOWS, w ith l hat care that would warrant 

the basing of positive <■ ilnsions upon that process of determining it. I: 

iiat there is the germ of a good method In it j but, as described by Pr Lafon- 

taiue, he is quite confident it could never be used to prove posit \\ • ly w aether lard is 
pureor impure, in respeot to Huston's method, without any modification, be should 
nay most emphatically that it i- not a reliable process tor determining the adul 

of lard. The Blythe pattern pi , as he understands it, th< iwhat 

is known a- ■■. ohesion figures." There It some confusion in the oat of terms in de- 
scribing matters of tl lie is, however, quite -are that I - called the 



534 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

"Blythe pattern process" and "collision figures" is one and the same thing. Of this 
process Mr. William L. Carpenter, in the "Journal of the Society of Chemical In- 
dustry." of London, under date of March 29, 1S83, saj 

'•In reply to Mr. Newland's inquiry on this subject, I may say that when Pro 
Tomlinson first brought them forward I spent several weeks in fruiti> ors to 

apply the method to analytical examination of oil, and the result, I regret to say. was 
a complete failure." 

Ho has read the testimony of Mr. Iloskins given in this case in respect to his chemi- 
cal analysis of lard. Mr. Iloskins washes out a little differently from Professor De- 
lafontaine, hut he regards Mr. Iloskin's process very much as he does that of Pic 
Delafoutainc lie has also read the testimony of Mr. Hirsh, and will say that he 
considers the chemical process pursued by Mr. Hirsh as the least reliable of any of 
those referred to. Mr. Hirsh made use of the same principle that the other two 
chemists named did, or attempted to do so. Mr. Hirsh, taking the same quantity of 
the lard to bo examined and of pure lard, and applying his process, seeks to compare 
the residue obtained in each specimen ; that principle is the basis of the methods of 
all these gentlemen ; the others weigh the residue obtained, which is the only • 
hie way to deal with it chemically, but Mr. Hirsh measures it ; he has never before 
heard of measuring a precipitate; that is something entirely novel and original. 

In prosecuting this investigation he tried the color test for cottonseed oil, with 
sulphuric acid ; this consists of taking a known quantity of the specimen to he ex- 
amined and dropping on it two drops of sulphuric acid ; with cotton-seed oil the ef- 
fect of this combination is to produce a change of color. This method was tried with. 
cottonseed oil, with mixtures of cottonseed oil and laid, one of which was as low 
as 10 per cent, of the oil, and with the samples 1, 2, and :5 (Fowler Lard) : in the mixt- 
ure of lard with 10 per cent, cotton-seed oil, he could positively identify the presence 
of the cottonseed oil, but he could not detect any evidence of it in the samples 1, 2, 
and:*. This test depends for its success upon having the right conditions: it is an 
extremely delicate test, and must be made under certain conditions in order t' 
any results at all. He has since tried the same process wi fell another sulphuric acid 
and failed in being able to distinguish one from the other; that experiment did not 
prove anything to his mind. 

The .subject of investigations for the detection of cottonseed oil or tallow in laid is 
one of the most complicated with which chemists have to deal. When ehemi-- - 
they can not solve such questions people are apt to laugh at them. Altogetbei too 
much is expected of chemistry in some cases, and in others not enougb of credit is 
given. The subject of investigation of fats has been worked on for many years, and 
all the methods which have been employed have been, in general, found unsatisfac- 
tory. In the case of butter the quest ion has, within the past ten year-, been Btndied 
with great cue. and m consequence it Is now possible to tell positively what the 

nature of butter is: other fats have not been examined with the same care. Owing to 

the immense amount of time and labor necessary to go through the investigation 
fully. Jn a general way he will say that the methods employed for determining the 
question are unsatisfactory to him. in the case of the samples 1, 2, and 3, now in 

question, he can say, t hat with the investigations he has been able to make of them 
I deuce whatever Of impurity. All the tests he has applied to 

t hem, so far as tiny ha\ e given indications, have indicated the absence of impurity ; 

the methods being imperfect, he can not say positively that tin 1 lard is pure, but the 
indications are all in that direction, with no indications whatever in the o|m 

din ct ion. 

« • * • • ■ 

The spectroscope develops a difference in the appearance between cottonseed oil, 
either alone or mixed with lard, ami that of p nre lard: by the use of the spectre* 

he was able, to positively, and without difficulty, tell that a certain specimen, 
unknown to him at the time, hut which really contained 1" per cent, of cottonseed 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATE 535 

oil, had cottonseed oil in it. The samples of Fowler lard did not give the cottonseed 
oil appearance when tested by the spectroscope, but acted in all respects the same as 
the pure prime steam lard did. He does not attach much importance to this test, and 
can only say that so far as the examination of the Fowler lard by this test is con- 
cerned, the results were negative. 

When examined by transmitted light cottonseed oil has a yellowish color, which 
neither pure lard nortallow has, but all inixturesof lard and cottonseed oil Lave this 
color. The Fowler lards failed to show any appearance of this color when examined 
by transmitted light. 

The cottonseed oil he used in all these experiments was refined oil. He has never 
used the bleached or colorless oil for such experiments. The test by transmitted 
light would be of no value whatever iu detecting the colorless oil. 

Finally, I to the color test for the detection of cottonseed oil : When he 

testified two days .since, he had spokeu cautiously and not very confidently of the 
value of this process. At that time he had just come from the laboratory where they 
(himself and others) had met with a difficulty which at that time none of them conld 
solve. This arose from their having used something they did not know anything 
about. This difficulty has, however, been since explained, and he is now fully pre- 
pared to make a positive statement in regard to the value of the sulphuric-acid test 
a> a means of detecting an admixture of cottonseed oil in lard, and has joined with 
Professor Sharpless and others in the statement read by Professor Sharpless in that 
gentleman's linal testimony in regard to the value of that test. The expression of this 
papei (see pp. 233,234, which the witness read) is his deliberate judgment upon the 
quest ion of the reliability of the color test for cottonseed oil ; and in view of all 1 
aminat ions of the samples 1 . '2, and 3 of Fowler lard, he is now prepared to express a 
re opinion that these samples do not contain any cottonseed oil. He did not. as 
is said, use any bleached oil in this process, but other gentlemen did, who have 
given, or will give, evidence on that point. In all the oil he has used he alwaj - 
the color reaction peculiar to cottonseed oil, not alwa\ ly the same extent, 

but so sufficiently and clearly marked as to be unmistakable, and the absence of it is 
proof positive, to his mind, that there is no cottonseed oil in the samples of Fowler 
lard he has examined. 

CERTIFICATE OF PROF. K. A. WITTHA1 

Chh a..... Jul E . 188 
This is to certify thai I have made chemical examinations of three samp 
marked, respectively, tfos. 1,2, and 3, Fowler, without obtaining the Blighteel 

of the presence of any imparity. I th< insider them as being samples 

of pure prime steam lard. 

R. A. YYii in i 

Professor Witthans also exhibited a table showing the results of. five experiments 
with modifications of Bnsson, showing the varying proportions of insoluble resid 
by ether and alcohol. In the first four experiments the residue « I with LOcc 

of absolute alcohol, in the fifth with 30< 



'.. p. •-'■"■4. • Op. <ii.. tab 



53G 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS 






Per cent, of residue 



Substances treated. 



Xo. 1. 



No. 2. KTo.3. 



No. 4. 



5. 44 
4.03 

4. 02 

4. L'_ 



5.06 
3.38 
3. 12 

27 

3.35 
3.24 



Fo^ler'a lard : 

No. 1 

No.2 

Xo.n 

Prime steam lard : 

Fiom the can 

From the tierce 

Pure tallow 

i (i per cent pure lard, 10 per cent, tallow 

i int. pure lard, 20 percent, tallow 

70 per cent, pure lard, 30 per cent, tallow 

GO per cent, pure lard, 40 per cent tallow 

90 per cent, pure lard, 10 per cent, cottonseed oil . 

, . (10 per cent, cottonseed oil 
80 per cent, puve lard ^ , 

( 10 per cent, tallow 

(10 
60 per cent, pure lard < 



per cent, cottonseed oil 
per cent, tallow 



4 65 

3. IS 



3. 83 3. 19 



3.79 2.46 





2.56 



2.23 



3.91 ; 
1.80 J 
1.C9 



The last experiment (No. 5) was tried to ascertain the effect of washing the residue 
with 30 instead of lOcc of absolute alcohol. The result clearly showed that much de- 
pends od the amount of washing to which the residue may be subjected. This residue 
is not absolutely insoluble in absolute alcohol, and it is probable that by excessive 
washiogs it might all disappear. 

It does not appear from Professor Delafontaine's testimony that he washed the 
residue at all; but, inasmuch as some of the liquid containing more or less of the dis- 
solved materia], would remain on the filter, unless washed offby the alcohol, and dry- 
ing, would improperly increase tho weight of the precipitate, they deemed the wash- 
ing with a very small quantity of alcohol necessary in order to arrive at true results. 
][<■ >liould not expect to <jjet essentially different comparative results by not washing, 
and as the whole experiment is comparative it makes little difference whether the 
washing is done or not. 

Professor Delafontaine claims that the presence of tallow is proved by an increase 
of the residue. The results of the experiments shown in the table prove exactly the 
contrary, so far as they prove anything in that respect. The admixtnreof cotton- 
seed oil tends to greatly reduce the amount of the residue obtained by ProfeSSOr Dela- 
fontaine's method. 

< I Kill ie.vi l 01 W. M. HABERSHAW.* 



( itii A«;<». July .">, 1883, 

I have analyzed three Samples | scaled | of lard marked NOS. 1 . 2, and 3, delivered Io- 
nic by I »r. \V. S. I [aims on tin- '.'1st of June, L883, and find them free from adultera- 
tion, and, in my opinion, pure lard. 

Babershaw. 
Mr, Efabershaw said: t 

of fats has, until the last five years, been a question involving a great 
deal of doubt. Among the firsl published methods of treating fats was the color test, 



• Op. .it., p 



• Op. cit., pp. 257, 258. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 537 

described in a French work by Theodore Chateau. By that test oils and fata 
treated with different reagents tor producing different colors. He lias examined all 
kinds of oils by that method. Id some cases good results are obtained, in others they 
are unsatisfactory. The method is of somewhat doubtful value. Then came the elai- 
dine test, by which theoleineof a fat is hardened by the action of an oxidizing agent. 
He does not regard that test as of any value. About 1878, a German method for an- 
alyzing oils by means of a standard solution of an alkali was published. He has used 
that method from then until now, and has found it to produce excellent result.-, [n 
that method the substance is accurately weighed and treated with hydrate of potash 
of known value. The result is expressed in milligrams or grams of hydrate of potash 
required to saponify a stated amount of fat. The standard which is used i- 1 gram of 
univalent to (blank) milligrams of hydrate of potash. In conjunction with that 
as, if an oil be examined by the oleate of lead process, which enables one to sepa- 
rate the equivalent oleate of lead from the equivalent stearic and palmitic acid, you 
tin the amount of the stearic and palmitic acids derived by difference, or they 
may be estimated directly. 

• • w * * 

His work has been entirely independent of other chemists who have examined those 
s.imples of lard. The composition of lard is about 47 of oleic acid and 47 of stearic 
acid : be can not give the chemical formula of lard : the lowest amount of Stearin e 
be has found in pure commercial lard was 33 to 40 per cent.; the highest amount was 
about 45 per cent. : by stearins he means the combination of stearine and palmitinej 
lie has never analyzed lard so as to obtain the tristearine, and has never made the 
ultimate analysis of either oleine, palmitine or stearine. He does not think t! 
any difference between the olein of lard and that of tallow: the chemical cbaracter- 
of chemically pure stearine are always identical ; in the mixture of stearine and 
palmitine known to t be trade as stearine t he characterisl Lcs would, be supposes, differ, 
but he can not describe the differences. He believes in the sulphnric-acid test for the 
tion of cottonseed oil, when used by those who understand it: he has had a 
deal of experience with thai test and he can detect cottonseed oil by it. He 
has made a great many analyses of butter ; and he has need the Angell and Hehner 
-s with which he is quite familiar. In the analysis of butter the quesl ion of its 
purity is decided by its percentage of insoluble fatty acids ; his own analj - 
percent as the average of fatty acids in butter; Angell gives 87.34; the rang< 
pei cent, either way; if a sample of butter runs over 1 or 2 per cent, above the maxi- 
mum he has found in pure butter he would condemn it. 

TESTIMONY <>r PROF. R. OGDRN DORKXU8." 

Professor Doremns said be undertook the analysis of the samples 1, •,', and 3, F<>\\ fer, 
.md the samples ot pure lard by what is called Miner's process, « huh consists in pre- 
cipitating the oleic, palmitic, and stearic aeids by ■ salt oflead; this gives the oleate 
of lead, the palmitate oflead and the stearate of lead ; the oleate of bad alone is sol- 
uble in ether. After I he oleate of lead was removed by this solvent and after nitra- 
tion, it was decomposed by an acid, and asolotiou of oleic acid and ether was ob- 
tained. A small part of this solution was drawn off, the ether evaporated, and the 
residue weighed ; from this the am.. out of oleic acid was estimated ; the permit 
lea 1 and the stearate of lead which remained in the filtei were removed, decomp 
i>\ an acid, ami weighed, giving the palmitic and stearic acids combined. Chemistry 

;■ bed that decree . >f perfert ; . .•) 1 . v wb i«h these two last-named aei.l 

I >p.cit., pp. 



538 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



be completely separated : therefore they mast be estimated in combination; there- 
suits of this process were as follows, in percentages: 



Acids. 


No.l. 


No. 2. 


Xo. 3. 


Pure 

lard. 




GO. CO 


60. 42 
31.88 


65.02 
30.42 


28.16 




33 85 


Total 




94.* 


92.30 


95. 44 





The remainder of the substance was glycerine, which being soluble in water was 
•washed away. Lards aro liable to variation in the proportion of these acids which 
they contain, owing to various causes, such as differences in feed of the animals, dif- 
ferent seasons of the year in which they are killed, and other canses, and there are 
also differences in the lard taken from different parts of the same animal. From the 
fact that the analyses of all these specimens so nearly agree in their proportions of tee 
acids — the variations being only such as are liable to be found in pure lard — he feels 
justified instating that he believes the samples, Fowler Nos. 1, 2, and 3, contain the 
proper proportions of the ingredients of lard and are, therefore, pure. 

Analytical chemistry is not capable of determining whether a specimen of stearine 
is from the fat of the hog or from the fat of the bullock, but these lards, being shown 
to contain the proper proportions of the constituents of pure prime steam lard, he 
claims are pure. Muter, as he now remembers it, reports lard as containing a little 
over 47 per cent, of oleine and about the same percentage of palmitine and stearine, 
but Muter doubtless referred to lard rendered from the leaf fat alone: iu Europe they 
would not, as we do in this country, designate as lard the fat from all parts of the 
hog but only such as comes from the leaf. 

He has examined nnder the microscope the specimens of crystals obtained by Dr. 
Belfield, Professor Hayes,. and others, and he believes the microscope is capable of 
determining the question as to whether the Bubstance from which the crystals were 
obtained was the stearine of beef or of the hog. Ho does not claim to be a profes- 
sional micrOBCOpist, but he has used the microscope largely in chemical investigations 
and in instruct u n to college students. In examining the crystals of Professor 1 l;i\ r es, 
slide after slide was placed before him, nnder the microscope, and wi thou I any pre- 
\ ions knowledge on his pari as to what the specimen was, ho was able to al once cor- 
rectly decide which was from pure lard, which from tallow, and which from mixtures 
of the two. The difference in the crystals is very marked, and is beautifully illus- 
i rated by the photographs exhibited by Dr. Belfield, 

In respeel to adulteration of lard b\ COttOUSeed oil, he believes that gentlemen who 
are skilled in handling these substances can by the ordinary senses of taste and smell, 
and by its color, detect an adulteration by it when the adulteration amounts to G or 
Ifl per cent., and if the adulteration has been with the common or unbleached oil, he 
may Dot, from t lie color, be able to say that it is certainly cot ton seed oil t hat h.i ■ 

mixed, but be will be able to detect the presence of some abnormal substance. He 
believes thai an expert can, by the sulphuric-aoid test, decide whether lard is adul- 
terated with cottonseed oil. There are two methods of doing this. First, dropping 
the acid upon the lard and allowing it to remain, watching the changes of color. 

Si 'coi id, dropping the acid upon the lard and stirring t hem together, and then watch- 
ing the development of colors. By this process an adulteration by a substance like 

co I ton seed oil can certainly be detected if it exist to t Ins extent of 1" per cent. Ho 
I id t he test iuiony for the defuse in I his case on the subject of the sul phuric-acid 

and folly agrees with them as to the value of this test, and he has joined in (he 
i-tateiiient in that regard read by Professor Bharpli 

B the aid of the spectroscope for the examination of lard, cottonseed oil, if pres- 
ent, i- and dearly indicated ; not thai it la certainly cottonseed oil, but that 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 539 

there is some foreign substance in the lard. There is nothing in chemical analysis 
that can compare in delicacy with the spectroscope ; the utmost reliance is placed 
on this instrument, and it is used for the determination of the most serious and deli- 
cate questions, and such as involve the issues of life aud death. There are two forms 
■of this spectroscope, that of direct vision, and the micro-spectroscope; the latter be- 
ing a combination of the microscope and the spectroscope; both were employed in the 
examination of the samples of the lard now in question. A piece of rubber was ar- 
ranged with small cavities cut into it, and into one of these cavities was placed a 
specimen of pure lard, which had been previously melted aud filtered; in another 
cottonseed oil; in another lard with an admixture of 10 per cent of cottonseed oil; 
in another lard mixed with 20 per cent, of cottonseed oil (the lard used in all these 
specimens had been filtered) and also one specimen of lard very carefully filtered ; the 
cottonseed oil had not been liltered. These several samples were placed in front of 
the spectroscope so that the light would pass through the liquid- -ion. Tin- 

observation showed that in the case of the pure filtered lard there was a wr trivial 
obscuration of the whole spectrum ; in the more carefully filtered lard scarcely any, 
as the light passed through them ; in the sample of pure cottonseed oil the whole of 
the upper part of the spectrum, from the upper or blue end down to the space bel 
Frauenhofer's lines E. and F.,was obliterated. A second prism was then adjusted so 
that the light from a not her source could pass through the spectroscope, reveal il 
spectrum above another. These lights were BO adjusted as that both had the same 

■ of brilliancy. In this way they could observe in one spectrum the light pass- 
ing through unobstructed and i- the oilier passing through the specimen. Examined 
in this way the liltered pure laid appeared as clear anil brilliant in the one spectrum 
as the unobstructed Light did in the other; do difference could be detected. The pure 
cottonseed <>il being brought in the place of the pure laid, only one-half of tie 
tram coald be seen, the pail only through which the- light passed unobstructed, the 
othet balf being entirely obliterated. The 10 per cent, mixture o jeed oil pro- 

duced a very perceptible obscuration : the 20 per cent, mixture much more, so that an 
approximate estimate can be made by the i obscuration : it would, perha 

a rongh estimate, but yon can certainly say whether it is present or not. The samples 
of Fowler lard 1,2, ami :: were, after being heated ami liltered, subjected to thu 
examined in the same way : with them there was not the slightest obscuration of the 
blue end : the one spectrum had the same brilliancy as tie- other. lie has not . 
ined a great vai iety of oils with th< cope, and can not say \i hat, it' any, other 

inee would similarly affect the light. Olive oil affects it differently; that pro- 
daces ;i dark band on the lower part of the spectrum. These experiments wen 
* Tally with reference to the detecting of cottonseed oil, and bis Bents have 

- ifflcient to warrant him in claiming that he can certainly detect l<» per cent. 
• ed oil mixed with lard : he tried it with an admixture of ."> per cent 
found nation: his son claimed he conld detect 8 per cent, every time, bnt 

Itneae I will not assert that he can do that, but he can a 10 per cent, inixt- 
te does not claim to be able to siate that the adulteration is certaii 
!, but where there is no obscuration he will say that cottonseed oil is 
ent, at least not to the extent of 10 per cent. : \n iih practice, he thinks it probabl< 
a mmh less adulteration, by cottonseed oil. than 10 per cent, can • "■ detected with 

inty. It : , that the lard should be melted and filtered, so t hat all the 

particles of membrane can be removed from it. line ltd and not filtered, ih.i 

nation, but it will alter t all parts of the spectrum alike ; ifthi 

is properly filtered then- will be no obscuration whatever: tb< of cotton- 

be bine end only, ami the degree of obscuration, I 

rum- to a total obliteration, depends oo the amount of the cottonseed oil 

the specimen. The micro-spectroscope developed the same , 

alone, in respect to cottonseed oil. 
Hebas tried the elaidine test, but has not b fully use it in d< 



540 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ing cottonseed oil. He lias also, repeatedly, tried the Blytke pattern process, but 
has not, by it, been able to reach any results upon which he could rely. 

The testimony for the defense being all in, Dr. Delafontaine was called 
in rebuttal and made the following statements: * 

Prof. M. Delafontaine recalled by the prosecution in rebuttal of statements and 
theories presented in the evidence of witnesses for the defense, testified that it was 
evident to him that tho scientific witnesses for the defense could not have read his 
evidence with care, or they would not have charged him with using kettle-rendered 
lard alone as his standard sample for comparison, as he had distinctly stated that he 
got a sample of prime steam lard from a packing-house, which, on being tested in the 
same way as the others, gave about :> per cent, of residue, and he had added, that, as 
a clincher, he had taken lard stearine, 1 pound of which is equal to 2 pounds of lard, 
and found that it did not run higher in residue than his sample, No. 1, of Fowler 
lard. In other analyses of four samples of prime steam lard of undoubted purity, 
none ran higher than 3 per cent, of residue. The chemists whose evidence on behalf 
of the defense, while seeking to impress the board with tho unreliability of the process 
he described iu his evidence in chief, all admit they did not, in their attempted trials 
of that process, follow the process he described, neither faithfully nor closely, as they 
should have done ; all introduced some modifications, some of which are essential, 
and entirely change the character of the method; others may be of small importance : 
he can not say whether they are or not. There seems to bo a general disposition to 
raise all sorts of objections to his process; apparently, in the hope that some of them 
would stick. The gentlemen from the East acknowledge that they have very little 
knowledge of chemistry of fats; for instance, Professor Doremus says tho composi- 
tion of fats varies a great deal : and reported that ho had found Go per cent, of oleic 
aoid (which means G8 per cent, of oleine) in pure lard ; and he (Professor Doremus) 
says Muter found 47 per ceut. of oleine iu lard, and claims there is that range of 
variation in pure lard. Professor Doremus has never analyzed but one sarnplo of 
pure lard, while he (the witness) has aualyzed many, and knows better than Pro- 
fessor Doremus does within what limits pure lard varies. The sample which Muter 
analyzed was, in all probability, refined lard; he himself, some two years or so 
ago, analyzed some Chicago refined lard, and found only 43 per cent, oleine; it was 
mixed with tallow and other things, such as aro put into refined lard. 

lb- regards Professor Doremus's reported analysis of four samples of lard — two of 
which yielded about 95 per cent, of tatty acids, and the other two abont 92, or 99.6 
per cent, as faulty ; because it has been recognised since 1816 thai the yield of fatty 

acids in various fats is nearly the same in all — between i>.~> and 96 per cent. The man 

who has done mosl to enlighten us in i he knowledge of fats finds that* "inhuman 

fa1 the total amount of fatty substance in 100 is 96 : in mutton tat, 95.5 ; in beef fat 95 : 

in pork fat 'J I. '.»." lie (the wit in— elaiuis that whenever a chemist funis even 1 per 
04 at. Less than these figures he should conclude his analysis is not correct. 

He thinks that the explanation of liie fact, if it is a fact, that by his process these 

gentlemen go1 a less yield of residue, from mixtures of lard and tallow, than from 

PUN tallow alone, is in the time the BUbstances remained mixed before being analyzed : 

that might make an essential difference, in his tests he took samples of the Fowler 

lard, and Of pure lard, and added to each a quantity of beef stearine ; tin' result, ill 
both eases, was t hat a residue * as obtained equal to what w as in the lard, plus what 

was in the beef stearine. In tin- ease of the elaidine test, all of the gentlemen say it 

gives no results, but none of t hem applied it as he testified he did: all had some 

modification'— some nsed nitric acid. 

lb- has tried tin- BUlphurio acid color tests on the Fowler samples of lard, and got 

those colon the gentlemen spoke s«» enthusiastically about, bul in treating by that 






LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. , 541 

test he separated the oil, and tested it, which they did not do ; if they had done this 
they would have got the cottonseed oil colors they say was absent in their treat- 
ment of it. The cottonseed oil becomes so diluted when mixed with the m 
lard that it is more difficult to detect it in the lard itself than in the separated oil. 
He did not get the color from the Fowler lard, but he did get it when he treated the 
oil from that lard alone. He has tried this test recently on the oil from a sample of lard 
which contained cottonseed oil, and he got the colors they describe and then tried iron 
some prime lard oil andgot no such color. The color test by sulphuric acid, if the oil is 
treated, is a valuable test for cottonseed oil, but his experiments Bhow that the cot- 
tonseed oil may be so well refined that it will not answer to the test quite b i 
as for oil in the less refined state. 

He has tried the process of obtaining crystals for microscopic examination by a so- 
lution. He took a sample of the Fowler lard and a sample of pure lard for a com- 
parison and treated them by that method, and after four or five hours, when half the 
ethei was evaporated, there was iu the Fowler lard an abundant deposit of crystals, 
in the pure lard none yet; he examined those crystals from the Fowler lard, and 
found them to be nearly all crystals of stearine, with a small sprinkling of crystals of 
palmitiue; the sample of pure lard was allowed to stand four hours longer, the ether 
then being reduced to one-quarter of its original bulk ; from this he got a small crop 
of crystals; on examining these by the microscope ho found them to be mainly crys- 
tals of palmitiue, with some of steariue; this process leads to determining whether 
the crystals are those of stearine or of palmitiue, when it is carefully applied ; the gen- 
tlemen on the other side all acknowledge they do not know the difference between 
the crystals of stearine and those of palmitine; his treatment by this process showed 
that the Fowler sample of lard had a great deal more stearine in it than the pure 
lard had. 

He thinks the gentlemen have greatly exaggerated objections to the method pur- 
sued by Mr. Hoskins in testing by the pattern process; he has seen that process tried 
on samples of lard and of tallow, and on mixtures of lard and tallow, and found quite 
-different pat terns produced in these specimens, when the process was properly applied. 

Be has tried Husspn's method, but did not get satisfactory results from it; he bad 
no difficulty iu understanding what was meant by 90 degrees alcohol and 66 degrees 
ether: both mean the degrees measured by the hydrometer, and are tin' equivalent o! 
per cent. ; it is a quite usual mode of expressing tho strength of such Bubstan 
French. 

DECISION OF UN BOARD OF TRADE. 4 

The board find thai the charges preferred may be properly summarized under the 
following genera] heads, to wit : 

'.— That a certain lot of 250 tierces of Lard, manufactured by the Anglo-Ameri- 
can Packing and Provision Company, branded ••James Wright &Co. Prime Steam 
Lard" and marked u ^BgVlO, M which lot of lard was stored in a provision warehouse 

of t he Anglo-American Tacking and Provision Company, and represented by ■ ware- 
house receipt issued by said company— having been by it put upon the market ami 
sold si and for prime i^eam lard— w as delivered to complainants in the course of 

md paid for by them as prime steam hud, but was not in tart prime steam lard. 
as required i>y the rules of the Board of Trade, but was adulterated and contained 
substances other than hog lard, to wit, tallow, vegetable d to have 

been stated by competent and skilled chemists who had analyzed the same, and as 
said complainants charge and believe to be the fa 

md.— That on the fast day of June, 1883, - id Fowler Brothers tendered to 
complainants i certain lot oi lots of lard —brands and marks, other than prime il 

lard, not stated -which tender purported to he in fulfillment of« contraet made hy 

• Op. .it., pp. 270-gft 



542 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

said Fowler Brothers to deliver to complainants a large quantity of prime steam 
lard, then deliverable on said contracts, which said lard, complainants charge, was 
not in fact prime steam lard, as required by the rules of the Board of Trade, but was 
mixed and adulterated by and for said Fowler Brothers, with tallow, beef fat, cotton- 
seed oil, or other substance different from hog's lard; which tender was intended by 
the said Fowler Brothers to deceive, defraud, and cheat complainants by delivering 
to them a spurious commodity under the brand and name of prime steam lard. 

Third. — Complainants charge upon information and belief that the Anglo-American 
Packing and Provision Company, with the knowledge and consent of said Fowlers, 
has manufactured a largo quantity of adulterated lard and mixtures which has been 
sold by said Fowlers to the trade, and to members of tho Board of Trade, for prime 
steam lard, which said adulterated lard is stored in the warehouses under their con- 
trol, and which transactions complainants charge to be acts of bad faith and dishon- 
orable and dishonest conduct in business. 

Tho board of directors have given to the investigation of these charges a very pro- 
tracted and patient hearing, which in their judgment has been exhausted in develop- 
ing all tho facts attainable in respect to them, and have arrived at tho conclusion 
that they have not been sustained, and have therefore voted that they be dismissed. 

Inasmuch, however, as these charges involve questions of the greatest concern to 
the members of this association, and to dealers and consumers of pork products, inn 
only throughout our own country but in foreign lauds as well, the board of directors, 
in view of the evidence submitted in this case, both on the part of defendants and 
for the prosecution, can not, "With a due regard to their responsibilities to the public 
and to the members of this association, refrain from expressing their unqualified dis- 
approval of and censure upon defendants for the remarkable methods of conducting 
the business of manufacturing lard in their establishment, as developed by th< 
dence in this case. It appears, and is admitted, to have beeu the practice, daring at 
leveral of receut months, that beef product in various forms has been rendered 
in the same tanks and with hog product, this mixed product of certain tanks being 
conducted through a system of intricate machinery and pipes in which also prime 
steam lard was at times conveyed to their so-called lard refinery wherein both prime 
steam lard and the mixed product used for what, is called refined lard is drawn oil' into 
packages lor market ; and this in a manner that by accident or design on the part of 
the employes of the establishment could easily contaminate the parity of their pi inie 
steam lard, which might thus become more or less adulterated, not only with the beef 
product so rendered with a portion of their hog product, but also with the cotton- 
seed oil and other unknown substances used in the manufact ore of their so-called re- 
fined lard; and this board, in view id' t he existing methods of manufacturing prime 
steam lard in this establishment, recommend that, without delay, the pat ties so re- 
adjust their lard-nianufact uring arrangements that all grounds for suspicion in this 

i shall be effectually removed, and that in oase this recommendation 
promptly complied with to the latisfaction of this board, such aotion be taken as will 

relieve this board of all responsibility in respecl to such product. 

The board of directors would embrace this occasion to express their gratification 
that, as thi f this investigation, the question of ascertaining the truth as to 

adulterations in lard by scientific examination, which has hitherto, to say the 
been one of extreme difficulty, seems now to give promise oi otorv .solution : 

and while not desiring to express absolute confidence in any particular method for 
determining adulterations by the substance ted in the charges preferredin 

this case, the board feels great enoouragemenl to believe thai even small adultera- 
with cotton-seed oil can be deteoted by some of the methods detailed in the evi- 
dence submitted in the cose by scientific gentlemen ; and thai the microscope, in the 
bands of an experienced operator, can be successfully employed in detecting adul- 
teration by beef product when it exists to the extent of 10, and probably even a much 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 543 

ADULTERATION OF AMERICAN LARD. 

IMPORTANT PROSECUTIONS.* 

At the Liverpool police court on the 20th ultimo, before Mr. Raffles, several whole- 
sale provision merchants in Liverpool wore summoned for having sold lard not of the 
nature, substance, and quality demanded by the purchaser. Mr. Marks appeared to 
support the summonses on behalf of the Health Committee of the Corporation. The 
first ease called was one in which Cuffey Brothers, Victoria street, were summoned, 
and for whom Mr. Pickford appeared. The court was crowded with representatives 
of the provision trade. 

Mr. Marks, in opening the case, said the defendants, who carried on business at 40 
Victoria street, were summoned for selling lard which was not of the nature, sub- 
stance, and quality demanded by the purchaser. The warehouse of the defendants was 
visited on the 14th May by Inspector Baker, an officer under tho sale of food and drugs 
act. He there saw a number of buckets of lard on which was printed " N. K. Fair- 
bank & Co., refined lard, Chicago." He inquired the price, and ultimately purchased 
a bucket for 10*. &d. He gave the usual notice about requiring tho purchase for 
analysis, and offered to divide it for that purpose. His offer was accepted. He then 
left the defendants a sample, another portion he took to Dr. Campbell Brown, in the 
u-p.al course, and the third ho retained. Dr. Brown furnished a certificate, upon 
which, as a rule, the case rested. Owing, however, to communications that had been 
made to him (Mr. Marks) by a gentleman instructed on behalf of the defendants, in 
this and other cases, it was thought desirable that Dr. Brown should be in attend- 
. >o that ho might give evidence in a more ample manner than would appear 
from his certificate, and in order that the defendants might have an opportunity of 
-examining him. Tho certificate which Dr. Brown had furnished stated that ho 
had analyzed the lard, and that in his opinion it contained considerably more than 
40 per cent, of a mixture of cotton seed oil, and either mutton or beef fat. Tho court 
would probably gather this was a case of greater importance than cases under the 
l loud and drugs act usually were. Certainly if a court was to he troubled with 
all the information which had been furnished to him officially, and also anonymously, 
he should imagine that, so far as the United stales was concerned, the people 
at present given op entirely to the lard question. [Laughter.] However, in the 
provision trade the case was undoubtedly regarded as of very great importance, and 
he was bound to Bay it was Important to mor< than one. It v 

vast Impoi tance to the makers of lard, * host- profits were Bimply enormous, and also 
to the consumers of the lard. It seemed thai about eighteen months ago it was dis- 
covered that Lard was being imported into this country which was adulterated, it 
mported from America, and the fact appeared to bave become known in Amer- 
ica, and to have created a I remendous amount of feeling tie 

Mr. Pickford objected to these observations as being irrelevant. 

Mi. Marks said he was simply Leading up to the facts. What he was going to say 
that the principal manufacturers of this lard were persons whose nam< 
I upon tin- buckets, namely, Fairbanks Co., of i hicagO, and ArmOUJ a I 
oown to Dr. Campbell Brown, about eighteen months ago, that this importa- 
tion of lard v> as going on. 

Mr. Pickford again objected to Mr, Marks - ntering Into matters not connected with 
the pn 

If r. Marks contended that his observations had reference to the case before the 

Mr. Raffles said he should rule thai what Dr. Brown did eighteen months 

n<>r relevant, evept it had reference to the summons QOW being heard. 

" 1'he Analyst, .July. 1888, pp. 



544 FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Mr. Marks (continuing) said that in order to meet Mr. Pickford's objections, be 
would put the matter in this way : On examining tbe sample in question. Dr. Brown 
found that bis researches, which had occupied him more thau eighteen months ago 
bad furnished him with knowledge that had enabled him to discover that the sample 
contained cottonseed oil. All he was going to say before was that eighteen mouths 
ago Dr. Brown could not have done so. [Laughter.] 

During the last month, when Dr. Brown analyzed the sample, be found there was a 
considerable proportion of cottonseed oil, and also of steanne, either nmttou or beef 
far. Lard adulterated in that way. Dr. Brown would show, was a very inferior arti- 
cle indeed, was not of the same value, and was not as useful for the purposes for 
which genuine lard is used. The cottonseed oil produced in one season in the United 
States amounted, be believed, to ISO or 200 million pounds weight. Of that a very 
large percentage, pretty nearly half, was used by manufacturers of what was called 
refined lard, but which the prosecution suggested was adulterated lard. The price 
of cottonseed oil was only about 22*. 6d. a hundredweight, and the price of beef fat 
only 30*. a hundredweight, whereas the price of pure lard was 42*. G</. a kuudred- 
w< ight. Therefore it would be seen that when such large quantities of cottonseed 
oil were used, enormous profits resulted to the manufacturer, who could substitute 
for tho more valuable article a cheaper one. Every week there came into Liverpool 
£20,000 to £30,000 worth of lard, and the whole of that he presumed was used iu the 
preparation of food. It was consequently a serious matter for the consumer, as well 
as a matter of considerable importance to the fair traders in lard, who ottered for sale 
tho genuine article. 

. inspector Baker deposed to visiting the defendants' warehouse, and purchasing a 
bucket of bird on which was the name of Fairbank & Co. 

Mr. Pickford did not cross-examine. 

Dr. Campbell Brown, examined by Mr. Marks, stated that on the 15th of May h«J 
received the bucket of lard from the last witness and analyzed it. The result of his 
analysis was that be found tbe lard to contain a very large quantity of cottonseed 
oil and beef or mutton fat. He estimated the total quantity as considerably more 
than 40 per cent. He really believed the quantity w as more than 50 per cent., but he 
was certain that it was more than 40 per cent. 

Cross-examined by Mr. PlCKFORD : 

< t >. I suppose you mean the cottonseed oil and the beef or mutton tat together 
mads 1 !| per <-.-nt. .' -A. Ye? 1 . 

V you don't distinguish the one from the other .'—A. I have not done so. 

Q. Can you do ho?— A. I can't tell the precise quantity of beef fat. 

n. Then, I assume, if you can't determine the quantity of beef fat. that yon oanM 
determine tin- quantity of cottonseed oil?— A. 1 am quite certain there was more 
than 30 per cent, of cottonseed oil, bul I ean'1 determine more. I can't estimate ex- 
actly tin- quantity of beef fat, ami therefore 1 can't tell precisely the quantity of cot- 
tonseed oil o\ er '■>>> per cent. 

m. Does not yonr test tell you anything abonl thebeef-fal steerinef— A. It tells:, 
good deal ahont it, but not ihe precise quantity. 

<}. How do your testa show tin- presence ofthese tilings?— A. [ think you would 
require to attend a course of lectures on chemistry before you do it. | Laughter. | 

Mr. B \i i LE8. 1 think we had better not have that. 

By Mr. Pickford : 
n What kind of te>is do yon usel A. I pnl the whole thing through seven or 
eighl processes and then argue the thing out. I have do individual test. 

< ( ». Supposing there was no cottonseed oil at all T— A. Jfes, bul there is. [Laugh- 
ter. | 

Q. Supposing there was no cottonseed oil, but beef fat only added to the lard, 
COUld yon distinguish that tat from the other fit ?— A. I can distinguish beef fat from 
fat. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 545 

Q. These are, as a matter of fact, new tests ? — A. They are new applications of old 
knowledge. 

Q. I mean that you could not until quite recently distinguish cottonseed oil or 
beef fat in the lard ?— A. I was quite certain about the cottonseed oil fifteen months 
ago, but I did not see my way to get out the quantity sufficiently for judicial pur- 
poses. Four or five years ago I knew about a certain quantity of beef fat. I don't 
want to give my results now, for two reasons. One is that I am getting the quantity 
less every week, and the other is I don't want to let the makers of lard know how 
little they can put in without detection. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Pickford, for the defense, said his worship would probably have divined from 
the cross-examination that he was not going to deny the presence of cottonseed oil 
in this refined lard, but he was going to eay that "refined lard'' was a perfectly well- 
known trade term, and everybody was aware that it was a compound of fats and 
not real hog fat. If that was proved, and the effect of the notice on the barrel that 
it was refined lard meant what he said, then he should bring the case within the case 
which was decided without mustard, in which a man asked for mustard, and on 
the packet was a notice that the contents were not pure mustard, but compound 
mustard. He did not think he was wrong in trying to stop what seemed to him 
to be irrelevant statements — of which a number had been made — about the com- 
parative prices of the ingredients. 

Mr. Mahks. I can prove my statement if my friend wants. 

Mr. Pickford. A great number of these statements are absolutely inaccurate. 

Mr. MARKS. I think it is only fair to myself to say what I base my statements 
upon. 

Mr. Raffles. I have nothing tw do with it. 

Mr. Marks. I was basing my statement upon the general broker's trade circular of 
the 1 f> 1 1 1 of last month. 

Mr. Raffles. Don't let us talk about it. 

Mr. Pickford. No, sir; I don't want to. But if I allow it to pass without con- 
tradiction it would no doubt be stated in the papers that it was admitted as a fact,, 
and I don't admit it. I do admit that this refined lard is sold at about the same price 
as pure lard, and I admit that M being important for showing that the people who 
DM a very large quantity of this stuff in this country willingly pay the same price, 
and have no complaint to make of the stuti*. 

Mr. Pickford was proceeding to make remarks upon the summons when — 

Mr. Raffles said: The only question I have to deal with is the adulteration. 

Mr. Pickford. Put is it adulterated I 

Mr. Raffi.es. On Dr. Campbell Brown's evidence it is adulteration. 
Mr. PICKFORD. I say it is not adulteration. It is sold as refined lard, and lean 
call evidence 

Mr. K.\i i LR8. I can't go into that. 

Mr. PICKFORD. If yon say you can't hear evidence on that I can't say any more. 

Mr. Rafflrb. i can't 

If r. PlCRFORD. Hut supposing that the meaning of the trade term '• rnined lard " 

■ >t pure hog's Lard, then it is ■ compound and not adulterated. 

Mi. Rafflrs. [canM go into enyspeoi*] meaning ffhieh is attached by the trade 
to refined lard. 

Mr. Pickford. [f the words "refined lard" do mean s compound of fists, it 
means thai everybody who buys the stasT, thai the purchaser Is not getting an arti- 
cle of a different nature, quality, end Substance tO that demanded 

Mi. Kami is. Well, of oourse, th i case will go elsewhere, whatever my dedsk 
Mi. Pn EvoRD, Then l understand thai yon reject en; my point? 

Mr. BAR] i B8. Y- -. 

Mr. Piokford said he ought perhaps to state that he Intended to show that refined 

lard was a WClUknOWU term, meaning B compound Of fistS and oil, and was QO( 

17319— pt. 4 lo 



546 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

fined only to the American market, but the Euglish refiners, bo believed, used some 
cottonseed oil. Refined lard, whether American or English, was never pure hog's 
fat, and everybody knew it. 

Mr. Raffles. Dr. Campbell Brown tells mo this is adulterated, and that is quite 
sufficient for me. He will take the case elsewhere, I suppose. 

Mr. Pickford. It is very likely, but I can't say auything one way or the other. 

Mr. Raffles. It is a very serious question, and one which ought to be dealt with 
seriously. I shall inflict a fine of £5 and costs. 

Messrs. Felling, Stanley & Co., Victoria street, were summoned, and Mr. Mulhol- 
land appeared for the defense. 

Mr. Raffles. What is the difference between this case and the last ? 

Mr. Marks. An important one, in one respect, inasmuch as tho lard is the same 
manufacture, but is from the other great refiner's. This also is called refined lard, 
but whether the defense means to rely upon that or not I don't know. 

Inspector Baker gave evidence of the purchase of the lard from the defendants, 
and stated that when he offered to leave a sample with them they declined to receive 
it. He then took the lard to Dr. Campbell Brown. 

Dr. Campbell Brown said ho analyzed the lard in question and found a very large 
quantity of cottonseed oil and fat extracted from beef or mutton. He estimated 
the total quantity, approximately, at 40 percent. The case was not bo bad as the 
last.* 

Mr. Mulholland said that the witness had analyzed two samples of lard of the 
same brand, aud had giveu different figures. Ho therefore applied for the case to be 
adjourned for tho lard to be sent to Somerset House for analysis. 

Mr. Raffles said ho should decide the case himself. 

In cross-examination Dr. Campbell Brown said he believed that of late years the 
oil formerly taken out of hog's fat to make it harder aud more lit for carriage was not 
now salable because of the introduction of mineral oils for lubrication. 

Mr. Mulholland. And therefore it becomes commercially more important to put 
hardening stuff" into tho lard than to take out the oil ? 

The Witness. It becomes important to tho manufacturers, but it is not right. 

Mr. Mulholland. You are not tho aualyst of right and wrong, but only offal 
and stearine. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Mulholland submitted that the case came within the first subsection of the 
act, namely, that these substances were not introduced for any fraudulent purpose, 
but for the purpose of hardening tho lard and making it merchantable. 

Mr. Raffles. It can not bo for tho purpose of bringing it over. I am againsl you 
there. 

Mr. Mulholland said he also took the same point as Mr. Pickford, and as his wor- 
ship was against them t hero he supposed he would grant them a case on thai as well 
as on othei points if necessary. 

Mr. &AFFLB8. I will give you any means you may require for testing my decision. 
It is very desirable this matter should be settled. I shall inflict tho same penalty of 
jC5 aud oosi i. 

Messrs. .). A T. Edwards, provision dealers, Whitechapel, were summoned for a 
similar offense. 

Mr. Edwards, a member of tho firm, appeared and stated that he bought the lard 

ire lard. 
Mr. Marks. If you did I should sue the manufacturers f»r the amount of the lino 
and COStt. 

The invoice for the lard was handed to his worship, who, however, said it was no 

w arrantj of purity. 

Mr. Edwards said ho bought the lard as pure, and consequently he thought the 
One ought to be loss than in tho othor cases. 

Mr. Baffles said he should inllict the same fine. £5 and costs. 



LARD AND LARD ADULTERATIONS. 547 

SUMMARY. 

I have endeavored to set forth in the preceding pages our present 
knowledge concerning the constitution of pure lard and its adultera- 
tions. The question of the wholesotneness or unwholesomeness of the 
various ingredients has not been raised in these investigations. It is 
hardly necessary to call attention, however, to the fact tbat the stear- 
ines and cotton oils used in the manufacture of adulterated lard are, 
so far as known, perfectly wholesome and innocuous. There is every 
reason to believe these are fully as free from deleterious effects upon 
the system as hog grease itself. * 

A more serious question which is presented is the effect of selling 
adulterated lard as pure lard or refined lard. To do this is a frand upon 
the consumer. Although it has been claimed by the large manufact- 
urers of refined lard that the term refined is a trade-mark whose mean- 
ing is perfectly well known by seller and purchaser, yet it can not be 
denied that the meaning of the word refined in the above seuse is gen- 
erally unknown to the consumer. The idea conveyed to the ordinary 
consumer by the word refined would be an article of superior purity 
for which he would possibly be willing to pay an increased price. It is 
gratifying to know that since the investigations recorded above were 
commenced the largest manufacturers of compound lard in this country 
have decided to abandon the use of the term refined and to sell their 
lards as compound lard or lard compounds, and. in cases where no hog 
grease at all enters the composition of the article, to place it upon the 
market as cottolene or cotton-seed oil product. 

In the cases before Bnglish courts cited above it is seen that the word 
refined does not convey to the judicial mind the idea which is claimed 
for it as a trade-mark, and hence the wisdom of* the manufacturers in 
changing the labeling of their wares is at once manin 

The extensive ad alteration of American lards has afforded grounds 
to foreign countries for prohibiting importation of our production or of 
levying upon it a heavy duty. By requiring all foot! products made in 
this country to be Labelled and sold under their true name we could se- 
cure for our products immunity from any such exclusion from foreign 
countries as is mentioned above. The right of foreign countries to levy 
an import duty on our products is one which we would in no measure 
seek to abridge; yet by the recognized purity of our exported food ar- 
ticles we should see that they secure a proper entrance into foreign 
countries. These remarks are not alone applicable to lard and its adul- 
terations, but to all kinds Of food products, whether they are to he con- 
sumed at home «»r abroad. 



INDEX, 



A. 

Page. 

Acids from cotton oil, composition of 508 

Adulterants in lard, calculation of. by Brullt-'s test 476 

from iodine absorption 472 

melting point 475 

refractive index 47 J 

formula for 474 

rise of temperature with sulphuric acid 475 

formula for 475 

specific gravity 470 

lormula for 471 

determination of. by chloride of sulphur 475 

quantitative determination of 469, 47<». 171. 172, 173, 174 

Affidavits, samples of 477. 478, 479 

Allen. A. H., cocoa-nut oil in lard 506 

detection of cotton oil by 5U7 

recommendation of 465 

Analysis, methods of, employed 428 

Analyses, results of 477 

Armour & Co., percentage of adulteration in lards of .. _. 17b' 

b. 

Bechi's method 

Beef fat 410 

Belfield, Dr. W. T., certificate of 

Bizio, criticism of Bechi's teal by 501 

Board of Trade, decision of, in the case o! M n, Everingham& Co.,agaios1 

Fowler Bros 541, 549 

Brown, Prof. J. Campbell, errors of analysts . 511 

Brnlle, method of 

I 

Oarr, Mr. Oma, method of .. ij> 

Chicago Board of Trade, definition of i"'i 

Choleiterine and phytosterine, occnrrence of, Lnglyceridei ... ">1 i 

Chloride of snlphnr tesi .. 

nut oil, occnrrence of, in lard 

Color reaction 415 

method of determining 148 

Computing specific grarity \ 

Conroy, Mi. Michael I adulteration of hud 513 

Cotton oil ill 



550 INDEX. 

Page. 

Cotton oil, chemical propertiesof 421 

color reaction of 420 

crystallization point of fatty acids in._ 420 

iodine number of 4*Ji 

manufacture of 413 

melting point of 420 

fatty acids in 420 

mills, location of 411 

physical properties of 418 

other properties of 421 

reaction of, with nitrate of silver 421 

refractive index of 420 

rise of temperature of, with sulphuric acid 420 

saponification equivalentof 421 

Specific gravity of 418 

at different temperatures 419 

volatile acids in 421 

weight of, used in mixed lard 428 

Crampton, Dr. C. A., work of 434, 4(39 

Crystallization point of fatty acids, method of determining 446, 447 

D. 
Danforth, Dr. I.N., certificate of 526 

Delafontaine, Prof. M., rebuttal testimony of 540,541 

testimony of 517,518,519 

Doremus, Prof. R. Ogdeu, testimony of 537,538,539 

E. 
Elaidine reaction 515 

F. 

Fairbank &Co., percentage of adulteration in lardsof 176 

Formulae for lard analysis 527, 528 

G. 

Grease, pig's-foot 409 

white 409 

yellow 409 

Mr. Wat -on, iodine absorption 511,512 

Gibson, Prof. 0. B., testimony of 

QntS, deli nit ion of 406 

H. 

Haoershaw, Mr. w. If., certificate of 536 

Balnea, Prof. Walters., certificate and methods of 539,530 

Prof. Ply Minion s., certificate of --. 526 

Behner, <>. H.. opinion of Bechi's teal 509 

discovery of pny toeterine 514 

Hirsch, Mr. .). M., testimony of 521 

Birschsohn, experiments with chloride of gold 502 

Hog-fa1 product* 408 

Horn, Mr. M. i ■'.. estimation of oils, etc., in mineral fats 519 

Boskins, Mr. William, evidence of 519,520 



INDEX. 551 

I. 

Page. 

Iodide of potassium solution 464 

Iodine number, method of determining 462 

obtaiBing 464 

re-agents for 462 

solution, variation in strength of 463 

Isbert & Venator, separation of stearine and palmitin 515 

J. 

Jones, studies in lard, adulteration of 510 

L. 

Lard, adulterants of _-. 433 

properties of .__ 413 

and compound lard, comparison of properties of 427 

analysis, abstract of methods of 516 

butchers' ___ 407 

chemical properties of _. 417 

choice 405 

kettle- rendered 405 

crystallizing point of fatty acids in 416 

definition of 405 

exports of 428 

fixed acids of _ 417 

free acids of 417 

industry, statistics of 427 

iodine number of 417 

leaf, definition of 405 

melting point of 414 

fatty acids in 417 

microscopical appearances of 413 

mixing 411 

moisture in 413 

natural, definition of __ .__ 405 

prime steam ___ 406 

pure, properties of 411 

reaction of, with nitrate of silver 413 

refractive index of 416 

rise of temperature with sulphuric acid 416 

saponification eqairalent of 417 

specific gravity of 11 1 

volatile acids of_ _ _. 417 

adulterated, chemical properties of ._ 1 M 

color reaction of l.'l 

crystallization i>oint of fatty acids of .- 4 .'.") 

iodine number of I-' 

melting point of .. .. l.'l 

fatly a> ids of 

microscopic*] appearances of ... 

moist ui e in 

physical properties of _ 

re lotion of, with nitrate of Hi her ._ 

refractive index of _ __ 



552 INDEX. 

Tage. 

Lard, adulterated, rise of temperature with sulphuric acid 425 

saponification equivalent of 426 

specific gravity of 424 

volatile acids in 426 

Lards and oils, classification of __ 477 

Letter of submittal 403 

M. 

Mason, report of 5G2, 503, 504, 505 

Melting point, determination of _439,. 440 1 

of fatty acids, method of determining 448- 

Micrographic plates, description of 451, 452, 453, 454 

Microscopic examination, method of procedure 449, 450; 451 

Milliau's method 466, 467 

Moerk, lard test of 502 

Munroe, Prof. C. E., letter from 445 

experiments of 446 

Mutton tallow 410- 

O. 

Oil, white _ 412: 

Oils and lards, classification of 477 

Oleo oil 410 

Oxygen, absorption of, by cotton oil _ -- 515 

P. 

Palmitine and stearine, separation of 515 

Picnometer __ ___428, 429* 

Phytosterine and cholesterine, occurrence of, in glycerides 514. 

Prosecutions for adulteration of American lard 543,544,545,540 

Pure lards, table of composition of 480 1 

Q. 

Qualitative reactions 516 

R. 

Reaction with nitrate of silver, method of determining 465 

Reactions, some peculiar -- J .<^> 

Re-agcnts, preservation of 462 

Reducing power of cotton oil, loss of._.. - - -- 487 

Refining process .. 412 

Refractive index at temperatures above normal 442, 443 

met bod of determining 441, 442 

Remsen, Prof, [ra, certificate and method of 532, 533, 534, 535 

Rendering-tanks, description of-- — 408 

I 'is.- of temperature, method of determining 443,444, 445 

Rose, Dr. P. I'.., method of 528 

testimony of . _ ... 516 

S. 

Balkowski, test for cholesterine and phytosterine — 514 

Saponification equivalent, method of determining 461, 462 

apparatus for conducting 459* 






INDEX. 553 

Page. 

Sausage casings 407 

Sharpless, Prof. S. P., certificate and explanation of 531,532 

test for adulteration of lard 512 

Soda, thiosulphate of 463 

Soluble and insoluble acids, determination of 455,456,457,458 

fatty acids, calculation of 458 

Specific gravity, method of 428 

of fats in a solid condition 433, 434 

Spectroscopic examination of fats 516 

Sprengel's tube - - 434 

Starch paste 464 

Stearic and oleic acids, determination of mixture of 449 

Stearine, lard 409 

oleo 410 

and palmitine, separation of 515 

Stearines 409 

chemical properties of 122 

color reaction of 422 

iod i ne, uu m her of 423 

melting-point of 422 

microscopical appearances of 423 

moisture in 423 

physical properties of 422 

reaction of, with nitrate of silver. 423 

refractive index of 122 

rise of temperature of, with sulphuric acid 422 

saponification equivalent of 423 

specific gravity of tj_> 

use in lard adulteration 121 

volatile acids in |22 

Stewart, certificate and method of ;,:;i 

stock, modification of Ifillian's method by 510, 511 

Summary 547 

T. 

Table No. 17 |gQ 

description of aamplee in.- ._. \- \ 

notes on |g] 

No. 18 "_'_'_ lag 

description of samples in 

notes on i^i 

No. 19. ...... _ ..; uj6 

description of samples in 1-1 

notes on } 

no. 20 — __~~~ if) 

description of samples In .i*m; 

notes on __ |„„ 

No. 21 __ ] m .".] ujb 

description of samples In 

notes on _ _ _ j<i ( , 

No. 22 _ 

description of samples In _ 190 49] 

notes on .. 

1731&— pt. 4 11 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

n^J. INDEX. 

5866 

.rage. 

Table No. 23 -495,496 

description of samples in 493, 494 

notes on 497 

No. 24 498 

description of samples in 497 

No. 25 500 

description of samples in 499 

Tallow, composition of 50 8 

Tilley, Dr. Kobert, testimony of 523,524 

Y. 
Volatile acids, determination of - 45o, 4o6 

W. 

Wallace, Dr. Shippen, experiments of 501 

Warren's test 468 

trial of 469 

Weighing fats, general directions for 460 > 461 

Wesson, David, experiments of, with BrulK's test ^06 

with lard tests 508 

microscopic tests for adulteration of lard 513 

Weetpnal balance 430,431,432 

Wheeler, Prof. C. Gilbert, testimony of --- °~ 3 

Williams, Mr. Roland, iodine number of fatty acids --- 512 

studies in lard adulteration by 509, 510 

Witthaus. Prof, R. A., certificate and method of - 535,536 

o